Data from: Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

  • Monica Lodi (Contributor)
  • JM Koene (Contributor)



To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The sperm, which are packaged in a spermatophore, are exchanged and received in an organ called the diverticulum. Because of its length, this organ was previously proposed to be a female anatomical adaptation that may limit the dart interference with the recipient's sperm usage. For reproductive success of the donor, an anatomically long spermatophore, relative to the partner's diverticulum, is beneficial since sperm can avoid digestion by exiting through the spermatophore's tail safely. However, the snail Eobania vermiculata possesses a diverticulum that is three times longer than the spermatophore it receives. Here we report that the love-dart mucus of this species contains a contraction-inducing substance that shortens the diverticulum, an effect that is only properly revealed when the mucus is applied to another helicid species, Cornu aspersum. This latter finding suggests that E. vermiculata may have evolved a physiological resistance to the manipulative substance received via the love-dart by becoming insensitive to it. This provides useful insight into evolution of female resistance to male manipulations, indicating that it can remain hidden if tested on a single-species.,Dose-time testMean length of C. aspersum’s diverticulum over time when four doses of love-dart mucus of the species E. vermiculata and one dose of saline solution were applied.Occurence and specificity of shortening effectMean length of the diverticulum of C. aspersum and E. vermiculata before (0 min.) and after (5 min.) five tested substances were applied.Length SPO and SROMean length of spermatophore- producing and receiving organs of C. aspersum and E. vermiculata,
Date made available1 Jan 2016
PublisherUnknown Publisher

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