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EDUCATION/TRAINING (Begin with baccalaureate or other initial professional education, such as nursing, include postdoctoral training and residency training if applicable. Add/delete rows as necessary.)



(if applicable)


Completion Date





University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands




University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Free University of Berlin, BRD







University of Groningen, the Netherlands












A. Personal Statement

I have a broad background in education/psychopathology, with specific training and expertise in experimental research and data analysis. My recent research targets children’s susceptibilities that might help vulnerable children to overcome underachievement and promote optimal achievement. 


1.     Kegel, C. A. T., Bus, A. G., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility in early literacy instruction through computer games: The role of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4). Mind, Brain, and Education, 5, 71-78.

2.     Kegel, C. A. T., & Bus, A. G. (2013). Links between DRD4, executive attention, and alphabetic skills in a nonclinical sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 305-312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02604.x

3.     Plak, R., Kegel, C.A.T., & Bus, A.G. (2015). Genetic differential susceptibility in literacy delayed children: A randomized controlled trial on emergent literacy in kindergarten. Development & Psychopathology, 27, 69–79. doi:10.1017/S0954579414001308

4.     Plak, R.D., Merkelbach, I., Kegel, C.A.T., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Bus, A.G. (2016). Brief computer interventions enhance emergent academic skills in susceptible children: A Gene-by-Environment Experiment. Learning and Instruction, 45, 1-8.

B. Positions and Honors

Positions and Employment

1977-1979                  School psychologist

1979-1987                  Assistant professor, Dpt. Of Paedology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands

1987-1990                  Associate professor, Dpt. Of Paedology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands

1990-2005                  Associate Professor, Institute of Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands

2000 (March-Aug) Visiting Professor, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

2000 (Sept-Dec) Visiting professor, University of California, Berkeley

2006-2016              Full professor, Institute of Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands

2016-                          Professor, emeritus, Leiden University, the Netherlands

2016-                          Guest professor, Dpt. of Language, Literature and Communication, Free University Amsterdam

2016-                          Honorary professor Eȍtvȍs Lorand University, Faculty of education and psychology, Budapest

Other Experience and Professional Memberships

1985-                          Member, American Educational Research Association

1985-                          Member, International Literacy Association

2000-                          Member, European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction

2010-                          Member, Scientific Studies of Reading

2000-               Member of several editorial review boards (among which: Journal of Educational Psychology, RRQ, Journal of Literacy Research)

2012-                          Member of Board of Advisors, Reading Research Quarterly

2000-               Member of many peer Review Committees of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and the scientific research organization in Flanders (Belgium)

2013-2018       Member of scientific board of the project Education for Tomorrow, a collaboration between five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Denmark)


1977-1978                  Fellowship Deutsche Akademische Austausch Dienst

1987-88           Fellowship NWO, for stay at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Literacy Research Center, Philadelphia

2003                ISED artikel-prijs, Quality of book reading matters, published in Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 145-155

2004                Computers in Reading Research Award, in recognition of valuable contributions to technology in literacy education special interest group of the international literacy association

2006                Award for academy colloquium, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)

2011                Social Service Award of the Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University, for conducting African PhD students (Lolle Nauta foundation)

2013-               Elected to the Reading Hall of Fame by a vote of the membership for distinguished contributions to literacy research, theory and/or practice

2016-               Knight in the order of the Dutch Lion, appointed by the Dutch king

C. Contribution to Science

1.     After finishing my dissertation that presented three experiments in different stages of becoming a reader (finalized in 1984), I started to study emergent literacy and in particular book reading. I carried out a series of studies targeting the relationship between attachment and book reading published in first-rate journals (Child Development, Reading Research Quarterly). These publications document the importance of a secure parent-child relationship for enabling high-quality book reading. In the same period, I was involved in the development of early interventions to prevent reading problems in the Netherlands. As a clinician, I was also interested in diagnostic problem-solving behavior of expert practitioners in the field of learning disabilities and I studied the quality of assessments and advices.  

a.     Bus, A.G., & Van IJzendoorn, M.H. (1988). Mother-child interactions, attachment, and emergent literacy: A cross-sectional study. Child Development, 59, 1262-1272.

b.     Bus, A.G., & Kruizenga, T.H. (1989). Diagnostic problem-solving behavior of expert practitioners in the field of learning disabilities. Journal of School Psychology, 27, 277-287.

c.     Bus, A.G., & Van IJzendoorn, M.H. (1992). Patterns of attachment in frequently and infrequently reading mother-child dyads. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153, 395-403.

d.     Bus, A.G., & van IJzendoorn, M.H. (1995). Mothers reading to their three-year-olds: The role of mother-child attachment security in becoming literate. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 998-1015.

e.     Bus, A.G., Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Crnic, K. (1997). Attachment, and bookreading patterns: A study of mothers, fathers and their toddlers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12, 75-90.


2.     I carried out several meta-analyses among which a meta-analysis targeting book reading and a meta-analysis targeting a training of phonemic awareness. Recently I carried out a research synthesis to examine the association between print exposure and components ofreading grows across development.

All meta-analyses are often cited in the literature.

a.     Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Bus, A.G. (1994). Meta-analytic confirmation of the nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 267-275.

b.     Bus, A.G., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Pellegrini, A.D. (1995). Storybook reading makes for success in learning to read. A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65, 1-21.

c.     Bus, A.G., & van IJzendoorn, M.H. (1999). Phonological Awareness and Early Reading: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Training Studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 403-414.

d.     Mol, S. E., & Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267-296. doi: 10.1037/a0021890


3.     Since 2000 I have been involved in the development of computer applications for kindergarten classrooms. A main research aim was testing the effects of digitized presentations of narratives that include oral text as well as multimedia information sources (e.g., animations and other visual and sound effects, background music, hotspots, games, dictionaries) on children’s emergent literacy. Research on preschool and kindergarten children has revealed both positive and negative effects of electronic stories conditional upon whether materials are consistent with the way that the human information processing system works. Adding certain information to electronic storybooks can facilitate multimedia learning, especially in children at-risk for language or reading difficulty. Animated pictures, sometimes enriched with music and sound, that match the simultaneously presented story text, can help integrate nonverbal information and language and thus promote storage of those in memory. On the other hand, stories enhanced with hypermedia interactive features like games and “hotspots” may lead to poor performance on tests of vocabulary and story comprehension.

a.     De Jong, M. T., & Bus, A.G. (2002). Quality of book-reading matters. An experiment with the same book in a regular or electronic format. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 145-155.

b.     De Jong, M.T., & Bus, A.G. (2004). The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergent story understanding. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 378-393.

c.     Verhallen, M.J.A.J., Bus, A.G., & de Jong, M.T. (2006). The promise of multimedia stories for kindergarten children at risk. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 410-419.

d.     Smeets, D.J.H., & Bus, A.G. (2012). Interactive Electronic Storybooks for Kindergartners to Promote Vocabulary Growth. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112, 36-55. doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.12.003

Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the person's scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher.

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Research Output 1986 2019

A randomized controlled trial to test efficacy of digital enhancements of storybooks in support of narrative comprehension and word learning

Sarı, B., Başal, H. A., Takacs, Z. K. & Bus, A. G., 1 Mar 2019, In : Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 179, p. 212-226 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Randomized Controlled Trials
Language Tests

Digital Guidance for Susceptible Readers: Effects on Fifth Graders' Reading Motivation and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

Nielen, T. M. J., Smith, G. G., Sikkema-de Jong, M. T., Drobisz, J., van Horne, B. & Bus, A. G., 1 Mar 2018, In : JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING RESEARCH. 56, 1, p. 48–73 26 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Early Shared Reading, Socioeconomic Status, and Children's Cognitive and School Competencies: Six Years of Longitudinal Evidence

Shahaeian, A., Wang, C., Tucker-Drob, E., Geiger, V., Bus, A. G. & Harrison, L. J., 2018, In : Scientific Studies of Reading. 22, 6, p. 485-502

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

How pictures in picture storybooks support young children's story comprehension: An eye-tracking experiment

Takacs, Z. K. & Bus, A. G., Oct 2018, In : Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 174, p. 1-12 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Eye Movements

Problemen met begrijpend lezen: over ontstaan en preventie

Bus, A. G., 5 Feb 2018, Presentatie tijdens een studiebezoek aan Nederland rond Begrijpend Lezen van mevrouw Hilde Crevits, Vice-minister-president van de Vlaamse Regering en Vlaams minister voor Onderwijs.

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

Activities 2005 2018

  • 5 Lecture / Presentation
  • 3 Other
  • 2 Editorial work
  • 1 Conference

Music in digital storybooks for young children: aid or jammer?

Bus, A. G. (Speaker), D Aram (Speaker), Margalit Ziv (Speaker), Zsofia Takacs (Speaker), Burcu Sari (Speaker)
14 Apr 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationAcademic

Lezen loont een leven lang

Bus, A. G. (Speaker)
3 Apr 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Digital storytelling techniques in children’s books: obstacles for comprehension or incentives?

Bus, A. G. (Speaker), Burcu Sari (Speaker)
30 Mar 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationAcademic

Reading and Writing (Journal)

Bus, A. G. (Reviewer)

Activity: Peer review and Editorial workEditorial workAcademic


Computers in reading research award

A.G. Bus (Recipient), 5 Apr 2005

Prize: Prize / AwardAcademic


Elected member of the Reading Hall of Fame

A.G. Bus (Recipient), 21 Apr 2013

Prize: Prize / AwardAcademic


Ridder in de orde van de Nederlandse leeuw

A.G. Bus (Recipient), 12 Mar 2016

Prize: Prize / AwardSocietal

Press / Media


Marinus H. van IJzendoorn & A.G. Bus


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Public Engagement Activities