If you made any changes in Pure these will be visible here soon.

Personal profile

Personal information

André Krouwel (1964) teaches political science and communication at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and is founder and co-owner of Kieskompas (Election Compass), a leading developer of Vote Advice Applications across the globe. Krouwel’s research focuses on political parties, elections, voting behaviour, public opinion, populism, Euroscepticism and extremism (versus political moderation). He wrote his PhD on the transformation of political parties in Western Europe. Most important findings are captured in Party Transformations in European democracies at SUNY Press.

Krouwel has published articles and book chapters about online opinion polling, parliamentary and presidential election campaigns, voting behaviour, political parties and social movements. His publications focus in particular on the changing character and role of political parties in European democracies and the rise (and fall) of new political parties and political ‘entrepreneurs’. More recent work also analyses (negative) political attitudes such as political cynicism, EU-rejectionism, political extremism and anti-establishment attitudes of voters across Europe. These studies highlight how populism, extremism and belief in conspiracies is related to political polarisation and how this affects party democracy and government formation. Political transitions also feature in his work, from the political institution-building processes and democratisation in East and Central Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Arab Uprisings.

Krouwel’s interest in finding practical applications for scientific knowledge led to the development of an online party profiling application – Election Compass (Kieskompas). Such Vote Advice Applications allow voters to determine which political party is closest tot their own policy preferences. Used by millions of voters in more than 40 countries, Election Compass projects collect large-N non-probability samples that offer unique opportunities to study the decision-making mechanisms behind party choice.



  • Comparative Politics
  • The Governance and Politics of Social Problems
  • Dutch Politics and Qualitative Methods
  • Political Communication (@ University College Amsterdam)
  • Media, Maatschappij en Politiek
  • New Media Challenges
  • Political Participation and Protest
  • Science for Impact (Quantitative Methods)
  • MA thesis supervision Political Science, Communication Science and Journalism

Ancillary activities

Founder and co-owner of Kieskompas B.V. (Election Compass) 


Ancillary activities

No ancillary activities

Ancillary activities are updated daily


  • Political Parties
  • Conspiracy Belief
  • Populism
  • Euroskepticism
  • Extremism
  • Vote Advice Applications
  • Voting behaviour
  • Online polling
  • Public opinion

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where André Krouwel is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

voter Social Sciences
voting Social Sciences
Netherlands Social Sciences
election Social Sciences
Politics Medicine & Life Sciences
campaign Social Sciences
polarization Social Sciences
democracy Social Sciences

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Research Output 1993 2020

De SGP-kiezer: Wel radicaal en rechts maar niet radicaalrechts populistisch?

Otjes, S. & Krouwel, A., 1 Jan 2020, Theocratie en populisme. Staatkundig gereformeerden en de stem van het volk.. de Jager, K. (ed.). Labarum Academic, p. 179-201 22 p. (Bible Belt Studies deel 5).

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

election research
party system
Western Europe

Beyond the dichotomous vote: Can expressive ballots increase ideological congruence and decrease parliamentary polarization?

Meijers, M., Ellenbroek, V. & Krouwel, A., 1 Nov 2019, In : Government and Opposition. p. 1-19 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
parliamentary election

Die politische Landschaft zur Bundestagswahl 2017. Befunde aus zwei Voting Advice Applications und dem Chapel Hill Expert Survey

Thomeczek, P., Jankowski, M. & Krouwel, A. P. M., 29 Sep 2019, (Submitted) Die Bundestagswahl 2017. Analysen der Wahl-, Parteien-, Kommunikations- und Regierungsforschung. Korte, K-R. & Schoofs, J. (eds.). VS Springer, p. 267-291 24 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

expert survey
parliamentary election

Genuine effects of vote advice applications on party choice: Filtering out factors that affect both the advice obtained and the vote

Kleinnijenhuis, J., van de Pol, J., van Hoof, A. M. J. & Krouwel, A. P. M., 1 May 2019, In : Party Politics. 25, 3, p. 291-302 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

election campaign

Activities 1998 2019

  • 61 Lecture / Presentation
  • 29 Conference
  • 7 Expert meeting
  • 1 PhD thesis examination

Vier Lehren Progressive Parteien

André Krouwel (Speaker)
12 Mar 2019

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

IEZ und ID Fachkonferenz 2019: Parteienkooperation in der internationalen Arbeit der FES

André Krouwel (Speaker)
26 Jun 201927 Jun 2019

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Debat over Referendum Arnhem (met Martin Rosema)

André Krouwel (Speaker)
9 Dec 2019

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Tweede Kamer Expert Meeting over partijfinanciering

André Krouwel (Participant)
7 Nov 2019

Activity: Participating in or organising an eventExpert meetingSocietal


De Tegel (categorie Nieuws Multi-Media)

Bas de Vries (Recipient) & André Krouwel (Recipient), 1 Dec 2006



e-Democracy Award for EUProfiler (cross-EU VAA)

André Krouwel (Recipient), 15 Sep 2019