Personal profile

Personal information

André Krouwel (1964) teaches political science and communication at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and is founder and co-owner of Kieskompas (Election Compass), a leading developer of Vote Advice Applications across the globe. Krouwel’s research focuses on political parties, elections, voting behaviour, public opinion, populism, Euroscepticism, extremism (versus political moderation) and conspiracy belief. He wrote his PhD on the transformation of political parties in Western Europe. Most important findings are captured in Party Transformations in European democracies at SUNY Press.

Krouwel has published articles and book chapters about voting behaviour, elections, political parties and social movements. His publications focus in particular on the changing character and role of political parties in European democracies and the rise (and fall) of new political parties and political ‘entrepreneurs’. More recent work also analyses (negative) political attitudes such as political cynicism, EU-rejectionism, political extremism and anti-establishment attitudes of voters across Europe. These studies highlight how populism, extremism and belief in conspiracies is related to political polarisation and how this affects party democracy and government formation. Additional publications highlight widespread feelings of economic precariousness of middle classes across the globe, the so-called 'squeezed middle'. Political transitions also feature in his work, from the political institution-building processes and democratisation in East and Central Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Arab Uprisings.

Krouwel’s interest in finding practical applications for scientific knowledge led to the development of an online party profiling application – Election Compass (Kieskompas). Such Vote Advice Applications allow voters to determine which political party is closest tot their own policy preferences. Used by millions of voters in more than 40 countries, Election Compass projects collect large-N non-probability samples that offer unique opportunities to study the decision-making mechanisms behind party choice.



  • Comparative Politics 
  • The Governance and Politics of Social Problems
  • Dutch Politics and Qualitative Methods
  • Political Communication (@ University College Amsterdam)
  • Media, Society and Politics
  • New Media Challenges
  • Political Participation and Protest
  • MA thesis supervision Political Science, Communication Science and Journalism

Ancillary activities

Founder and co-owner of Kieskompas B.V. (Election Compass)

Columnist VNG Magazine 

Ancillary activities

  • VNG Magazine | Den Haag | Columnist | 2022-11-01 - present

Ancillary activities are updated daily

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

User created Keywords

  • Political Parties
  • Conspiracy Belief
  • Populism
  • Euroskepticism
  • Extremism
  • Vote Advice Applications
  • Voting behaviour
  • Online polling
  • Public opinion


Dive into the research topics where André Krouwel is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint.
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Collaborations and top research areas from the last five years

Recent external collaboration on country/territory level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots or
  • Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    Vlasceanu, M., Doell, K. C., Bak-Coleman, J. B., Todorova, B., Berkebile-Weinberg, M. M., Grayson, S. J., Patel, Y., Goldwert, D., Pei, Y., Chakroff, A., Pronizius, E., van den Broek, K. L., Vlasceanu, D., Constantino, S., Morais, M. J., Schumann, P., Rathje, S., Fang, K., Aglioti, S. M., Alfano, M., & 238 othersAlvarado-Yepez, A. J., Andersen, A., Anseel, F., Apps, M. A. J., Asadli, C., Awuor, F. J., Azevedo, F., Basaglia, P., Bélanger, J. J., Berger, S., Bertin, P., Białek, M., Bialobrzeska, O., Blaya-Burgo, M., Bleize, D. N. M., Bø, S., Boecker, L., Boggio, P. S., Borau, S., Bos, B., Bouguettaya, A., Brauer, M., Brick, C., Brik, T., Briker, R., Brosch, T., Buchel, O., Buonauro, D., Butalia, R., Carvacho, H., Chamberlain, S. A. E., Chan, H. Y., Chow, D., Chung, D., Cian, L., Cohen-Eick, N., Contreras-Huerta, L. S., Contu, D., Cristea, V., Cutler, J., D'Ottone, S., De Keersmaecker, J., Delcourt, S., Delouvée, S., Diel, K., Douglas, B. D., Drupp, M. A., Dubey, S., Ekmanis, J., Elbaek, C. T., Elsherif, M., Engelhard, I. M., Escher, Y. A., Etienne, T. W., Farage, L., Farias, A. R., Feuerriegel, S., Findor, A., Freira, L., Friese, M., Gains, N. P., Gallyamova, A., Geiger, S. J., Genschow, O., Gjoneska, B., Gkinopoulos, T., Goldberg, B., Goldenberg, A., Gradidge, S., Grassini, S., Gray, K., Grelle, S., Griffin, S. M., Grigoryan, L., Grigoryan, A., Grigoryev, D., Gruber, J., Guilaran, J., Hadar, B., Hahnel, U. J. J., Halperin, E., Harvey, A. J., Haugestad, C. A. P., Herman, A. M., Hershfield, H. E., Himichi, T., Hine, D. W., Hofmann, W., Howe, L., Huaman-Chulluncuy, E. T., Huang, G., Ishii, T., Ito, A., Jia, F., Jost, J. T., Jovanović, V., Jurgiel, D., Kácha, O., Kankaanpää, R., Kantorowicz, J., Kantorowicz-Reznichenko, E., Kaplan Mintz, K., Kaya, I., Kaya, O., Khachatryan, N., Klas, A., Klein, C., Klöckner, C. A., Koppel, L., Kosachenko, A. I., Kothe, E. J., Krebs, R., Krosch, A. R., Krouwel, A. P. M., Kyrychenko, Y., Lagomarsino, M., Lamm, C., Lange, F., Lee Cunningham, J., Lees, J., Leung, T. Y., Levy, N., Lockwood, P. L., Longoni, C., López Ortega, A., Loschelder, D. D., Lu, J. G., Luo, Y., Luomba, J., Lutz, A. E., Majer, J. M., Markowitz, E., Marsh, A. A., Mascarenhas, K. L., Mbilingi, B., Mbungu, W., McHugh, C., Meijers, M. H. C., Mercier, H., Mhagama, F. L., Michalakis, K., Mikus, N., Milliron, S., Mitkidis, P., Monge-Rodríguez, F. S., Mora, Y. L., Moreau, D., Motoki, K., Moyano, M., Mus, M., Navajas, J., Nguyen, T. L., Nguyen, D. M., Nguyen, T., Niemi, L., Nijssen, S. R. R., Nilsonne, G., Nitschke, J. P., Nockur, L., Okura, R., Öner, S., Özdoğru, A. A., Palumbo, H., Panagopoulos, C., Panasiti, M. S., Pärnamets, P., Paruzel-Czachura, M., Pavlov, Y. G., Payán-Gómez, C., Pearson, A. R., Pereira da Costa, L., Petrowsky, H. M., Pfattheicher, S., Pham, N. T., Ponizovskiy, V., Pretus, C., Rêgo, G. G., Reimann, R., Rhoads, S. A., Riano-Moreno, J., Richter, I., Röer, J. P., Rosa-Sullivan, J., Ross, R. M., Sabherwal, A., Saito, T., Sarrasin, O., Say, N., Schmid, K., Schmitt, M. T., Schoenegger, P., Scholz, C., Schug, M. G., Schulreich, S., Shreedhar, G., Shuman, E., Sivan, S., Sjåstad, H., Soliman, M., Soud, K., Spampatti, T., Sparkman, G., Spasovski, O., Stanley, S. K., Stern, J. A., Strahm, N., Suko, Y., Sul, S., Syropoulos, S., Taylor, N. C., Tedaldi, E., Tinghög, G., Huynh, L. D. T., Travaglino, G. A., Tsakiris, M., Tüter, İ., Tyrala, M., Uluğ, Ö. M., Urbanek, A., Valko, D., van der Linden, S., van Schie, K., van Stekelenburg, A., Vanags, E., Västfjäll, D., Vesely, S., Vintr, J., Vranka, M., Wanguche, P. O., Willer, R., Wojcik, A. D., Xu, R., Yadav, A., Zawisza, M., Zhao, X., Zhao, J., Żuk, D. & Van Bavel, J. J., 9 Feb 2024, In: Science advances. 10, 6, p. 1-19 19 p., eadj5778.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Open Access
  • A longitudinal analysis of conspiracy beliefs and Covid-19 health responses

    van Prooijen, J. W., Amodio, D. M., Boot, A., Eerland, A., Etienne, T., Krouwel, A. P. M., Onderco, M., Verkoeijen, P. & Zwaan, R. A., Sept 2023, In: Psychological Medicine. 53, 12, p. 5709-5716 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Open Access
  • Conspiracy beliefs prospectively predict health behavior and well-being during a pandemic

    van Prooijen, J-W., Etienne, T., Kutiyski, Y. & Krouwel, A., Apr 2023, In: Psychological Medicine. 53, 6, p. 2514-2521 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Open Access
  • EU-sentiment predicts the 2016 Dutch referendum vote on the EU’s association with Ukraine better than concerns about Russia or national discontent

    Abts, K., Etienne, T., Kutiyski, Y. & Krouwel, A., Sept 2023, In: European Union Politics. 24, 3, p. 494-515 22 p.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Open Access
  • How political orientation, economic precarity, and participant demographics impact compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures in a Dutch representative sample

    Martinescu, E., Dores Cruz, T. D., Etienne, T. W. & Krouwel, A., Apr 2023, In: Acta Politica. 58, 2, p. 337-358 22 p.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Open Access
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