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Personal profile


My research focuses on public governance puzzles in general and more specifically the contingent relationship between trust and control. As more and more public governance challenges are characterized by simultaneous high factual complexity and high normative ambiguity, also called wicked problems, extant governance theories fall short. The underlying assumptions of these theories either assume no trust or that trust and control are substitutes: the more you  trust, the less you may control and the more you control the more you signal that you don’t trust. In my research I build (and test) theory about the contingencies for control and trust to support each other and the role of trust in collaborative relationships.

Research interests are: 

  • The contingent relationship between control- and trust-oriented policies and practices
  • Trust and control in regulatory enforcement/regulation
  • governance of street-level bureaucrats, public professionals and other frontline workers
  • Trust in, within and between (public) organisations
  • Role of teams in public governance and the relationship between trust and control
  • Trust and public sector innovations

Recent and current research projects:

  • Trust and respect (with Ros Searle, Denise Skinner, Antoinette Weibel, Nicole Gillespie and Deanne den Hartog)
  • Trust in public professionals and their professions (in Routledge compendium on trust, 2017)
  • The contingent relationship between trust and control in public administration
  • Street-level bureaucracy and teams (with Duco Bannink and Katinka Lünnemann)
  • Rethinking the relationship between trust and control in Dutch public service innovations
  • Trust in regulatory regimes (book with Koen Verhoest, 2017)
  • The dynamics of multiple motivations (of regulated entrepreneurs) (with Eelco van Wijk)
  • Regulating emerging governance (in Emerging governance, 2017)
  • Trust and resilience in emergencies (with Silvan Hijlkema and Ineke Nagel)



Relevant links:

Google citations

personal website in Dutch for practitioners: www.frederiquesix.nl  

professional website in English for academics: www.frederiquesix.eu  


Ancillary activities

Member of the strategic advisory board of NVWA (The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority) (2015 – )

Ancillary activities

  • Stichting Beurzenfonds UWC | Onbekend | Voorzitter van bestuur | 2013-12-02 - present
  • Stichting Beurzenfonds UWC | Onbekend | Voorzitter van bestuur | 2017-12-01 - present

Ancillary activities are updated daily


MSc courses on public management and good governance; master theses (public administration, business and management; organization science)

BSc courses on decision making theory, change management and public management;practicing academic writing and research techniques; tutor; internships.

Postgraduate education: internal and external supervision; public controllers programme (het Zijlstra Center), leergang Bestuurders en toezichthouders (het Zijlstra Center).

Many master classes and workshops to groups of practitioners (for permanent education), e.g. Dutch Tax Office, Inspectorate of Human Environment and Transport, Health Inspectorate, non-executive directors Rabobank, CCV, City of Amsterdam, Dutch association of school governors (VTOI), public sector division of NBA-VRC (controllers and accountants)

Bildung Academy Amsterdam: trust and regulation.

Education/Academic qualification

Management (MBA), Master, INSEAD

Environmental Engineering, Master, Wageningen University

Management, PhD, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdan

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Research Output 2004 2018

Governance, trust and learning: a new framework and comparative study of hybrid public sector governances in Finland, England and Scotland

Kinder, T., Six, F., Stenvall, J. & Memon, A., 25 Oct 2018. 18 p.

Research output: Contribution to ConferencePaperAcademic

Regulating emerging governance

Six, F., 2018, Emerging governance: Crafting and improvising in local welfare and security. Boutellier, H. & Trommel, W. (eds.). The Hague: Eleven Publishing, p. 135-160 25 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

Trust in public professionals and their professions

Six, F., 7 Mar 2018, Routledge Compendium to Trust. Searle, R., Nienaber, A-M. & Sitkin, S. (eds.). New York: Routledge, p. 361-375 15 p. (Routledge Companions in Business, Management and Accounting).

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

Agenda for future research into the role of trust in regulatory regimes

Six, F. & van Ees, H., 2017, Trust in regulatory regimes. Six, F. & Verhoest, K. (eds.). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated, p. 224-242

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

Toezicht als oliemannetjes van de samenleving

Six, F., 2017

Research output: Online publication or Non-textual formOnline publication or WebsiteProfessional

Open Access

Activities 2001 2018

Toezicht vanuit vertrouwen (trust in the boardroom)

Frédérique Six (Speaker)
21 Nov 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Samen tegen financiële criminaliteit: vertrouwen bouwen en behouden

Frédérique Six (Speaker)
18 Oct 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Trust in public service delivery

Frédérique Six (Speaker)
5 Sep 201811 Sep 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

toezicht vanuit vertrouwen (trust-based regulation)

Frédérique Six (Speaker)
6 Oct 2018

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Ronde tafel Doorontwikkeling Horizontaal Toezicht Belastingdienst

Frédérique Six (Participant)
5 Jul 2018

Activity: Participating in or organising an eventExpert meetingAcademic

Press / Media


F.E. Six


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Expert Comment

Nieuwe coalities, nieuwe trends

F.E. Six


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Expert Comment

BNR Ask Me Anything on regulatory enforcement

F.E. Six


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Public Engagement Activities

Pas op, er kan nog een akkoord van het kabinet aankomen.

F.E. Six


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Other

Vertrouwen is hard werken [Trust is hard work]

F.E. Six


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Other