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Marjan Hofkes is full Professor of Environmental Economics at Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam, School of Business and Economics (SBE) and Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM).

Marjan Hofkes obtained her doctoral degree in Econometrics in 1987 (cum laude) and she received her PhD in Mathematical Economics in 1991, from VU Amsterdam.

She is former head of the department of Environmental Economics of IVM, former acting director and chair of the management board of the same institute as well as former deputy director of IVM. Previously, she was a policy advisor to the Minister of Finance. Among other advisory roles, she was member of the committee on Sustainable Development of the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER).



Marjan Hofkes has extensive research and research management experience across a number of fields, including economic modelling, economic growth, labour market economics and income policy, ranging from pure academic to policy supporting research. Her more recent research focuses on the economics of sustainable development, environment-economy trade-offs and economic effects of floods. She was one of the founders of TPEdigitaal, a Dutch electronic journal of Political Economy


Research interest

Economic Modelling, Environmental Economics, Environment-Economy Trade-off, Green Accounting, Economics of Sustainable Development, Economic Effects of Floods.


Supervision of PhD students

Graduated: Trond G. Husby (defended 22 February 2016), In Chang Hwang (defended 10 December 2014), Samuel J. Okullo (defended 24 June 2013), Thijs Dekker (defended 18 September 2012), Rob Dellink (defended 27 November 2003; co-supervisor), Peter Mulder (defended 6 November 2003; co-supervisor).

Current: Derk van Ree, Andreas Coester, Theodorus Chatzivasileiadis, Brian Colgan. 


Courses taught at Bachelor level: Academic Skills, Economic Challenges, Ethics, Inclusive Growth and Sustainability, Price Theory, Research Seminar Spatial Economics.

Courses taught at Master level: Environmental Policy and Technological Change, Sustainability and Growth.

Prizes and Awards

2001: Hennipman Award 2001 for the best bi-annual article in ‘De Economist’. 


Several grants, obtained from Dutch (BSIK, Kennis voor Klimaat, KNAW, several Ministries, NWO, RMNO, WRR) as well as international (European Commission, International Human Dimensions Programme on global environmental change (IHDP)) research programmes.  

Ancillary activities

No ancillary activities

Ancillary activities are updated daily

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where M.W. Hofkes is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

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Research Output 1987 2019

Active Learning and Optimal Climate Policy

Hwang, I. C., Tol, R. S. J. & Hofkes, M. W., Sep 2019, In : Environmental and Resource Economics. 73, 4, p. 1237-1264

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

environmental policy
pollution tax
climate change
Climate policy

Systematic Sensitivity Analysis of the Full Economic Impacts of Sea Level Rise

Chatzivasileiadis, T., Estrada, F., Hofkes, M. W. & Tol, R. S. J., 15 Mar 2019, In : Computational Economics. 53, 3, p. 1183-1217 35 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Sea level
Sensitivity analysis

An optimal mix of conventional power systems in the presence of renewable energy: A new design for the German electricity market

Coester, A., Hofkes, M. W. & Papyrakis, E., May 2018, In : Energy Policy. 116, May, p. 312-322 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Power plants
power plant

Economics of renewable energy expansion and security of supply: A dynamic simulation of the German electricity market

Coester, A., Hofkes, M. W. & Papyrakis, E., 1 Dec 2018, In : Applied Energy. 231, p. 1268-1284 17 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Computer simulation

Activities 1997 2016

  • 16 Lecture / Presentation
  • 4 Editorial work
  • 4 Membership

The Drivers of Green Growth

M.W. Hofkes (Speaker), H. Verbruggen (Speaker)
24 Aug 2016

Activity: Lecture / PresentationAcademic

Tijdschrift voor Openbare Financien (Journal)

E.J. Bartelsman (Member of editorial board), R.H.J.M. Gradus (Member of editorial board), M.W. Hofkes (Member of editorial board)

Activity: Peer review and Editorial workEditorial workAcademic

Lid VROM-raad (External organisation)

M.W. Hofkes (Member)

Activity: MembershipAcademic