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Personal information

Peter Mulder (1974) is assistant professor in Spatial Economics. He teaches a variety of courses, including microeconomics and urban economics. His research is mainly in the fields of energy economics and the spatial structure of economic development, with a focus on developing countries. 

In 2003, he obtained his Ph.D. from Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam with a thesis on the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency, based on research carried out at the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis. Subsequently, he has been an associate research scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg, Austria, and a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Spatial Economics of VU University Amsterdam.

In 2005 he interrupted academic life to work for two years in Mozambique as a consultant/energy economist for the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), based at the Ministry of Planning & Development and the Ministry of Energy of the Government of Mozambique. In 2007 he returned to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. During the 2011 spring semester he was visiting assistant professor at the Department of Agricultural Economics of Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (USA).

He has been member and chairman of the Educational Committee for the Earth & Economics BSc program at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and member of the Board of Examiners at University College Amsterdam.

Currently is coordinator of a newly established partnership – including teaching and research – between the VU Department of Spatial Economics and the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta.

More information: www.petermulder.net


His main research interests lie on the edge of energy economics and spatial economics. He is especially interested in the economics of energy transitions, cities and the spatial structure of economic development, the relationship between energy use and urbanization in developing countries, spatial inequality and the role of institutions and governance in economic development.


Currently he teaches at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam undergraduate courses in Microeconomics, Urban Economics, Economic Ethics and Governance for Society within the Bachelor programs Economics, Earth & Economics and Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE). At the University of Amsterdam he teaches an inter-disciplinary urban course within the bachelor program Beta-Gamma.   

Previous teaching includes bachelor courses on Regional Economics (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam), Sustainable City (Amsterdam University College), International Economic Development (Purdue University USA), a master course in Environmental Economics (Catholic University Mozambique) and coordinator of the Earth&Economics thesis-project (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam).

He is coordinator of the minor Spatial Economics at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Previously he has been member and chairman of the Educational Committee for the Earth & Economics BSc program at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and member of the Board of Examiners at University College Amsterdam.

Ancillary activities

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Ancillary activities are updated daily

Education/Academic qualification

Economics, PhD, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Economics, Master, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam


  • Energy Economics
  • Spatial Economics
  • Energy Transitions
  • Spatial Inequality
  • Urbanization
  • Cities
  • Developing Countries
  • Governance

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Peter Mulder is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • 1 Similar Profiles
energy Earth & Environmental Sciences
Productivity Engineering & Materials Science
Developing countries Engineering & Materials Science
service sector Earth & Environmental Sciences
socioeconomic indicator Earth & Environmental Sciences
clientelism Earth & Environmental Sciences
liquefied petroleum gas Earth & Environmental Sciences
local economy Earth & Environmental Sciences

Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Research Output 1986 2020

Hierarchy and spatial contagion: population in American cities between 1990 and 2010

Dobis, E. A., Delgado, M. S., Florax, R. J. G. M. & Mulder, P., 14 Jun 2019, In : Journal of Economic Geography. 2019, 0, p. 1-22 22 p., lbz012.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

demographic situation
large city
rural community

Explaining regional variation in local governance: clientelism and state-dependency in Indonesia

Berenschot, W. & Mulder, P., Oct 2019, In : World Development. 122, p. 233-244 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

local economy
regional difference
public service

Expanding versus greening? Long-term energy and emission transitions in Mozambique

Mahumane, G. & Mulder, P., 1 Mar 2019, In : Energy Policy. 126, p. 145-156 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Energy utilization
Energy policy
Fossil fuels

Are poor provinces catching‐up the rich provinces in Indonesia?

Kurniawan, H., de Groot, H. L. F. & Mulder, P., 29 Jan 2019, In : Regional Science, Policy and Practice. 11, 1, p. 89-108

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
socioeconomic indicator
panel data
school enrollment

Ethnic drift and white flight: A gravity model of neighborhood formation

Bakens, J., Florax, R. J. G. M. & Mulder, P., Nov 2018, In : Journal of Regional Science. 58, 5, p. 921-948 28 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

ethnic group

Activities 2000 2012

  • 7 Lecture / Presentation
  • 1 Editorial work

Spatial Economic Analysis (Journal)

P. Nijkamp (Member of editorial board), P. Mulder (Member of editorial board), R. Stough (Member of editorial board)

Activity: Peer review and Editorial workEditorial workAcademic

A vintage model of technology diffusion: the effects of learning-by-doing and returns to diversity

H.L.F. de Groot (Speaker), M.W. Hofkes (Speaker), P. Mulder (Speaker)
31 Oct 2000

Activity: Lecture / PresentationAcademic



urban transport
urban region
energy use
environmental quality