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Personal profile

Personal information

Tilo Hartmann is currently an Associate Professor at the VU University Amsterdam. He studied Communication Science and obtained his PhD in 2005 at the University of Music, Drama and Media Hanover. He has worked at the Annenberg School for Communication at University of Southern California Los Angeles, and communication departments at the University of Erfurt, and University of Zurich. His research focuses on media use (selective exposure, experience, effects), and includes research on the hostile media bias, parasocial interaction, and media realism. He has published in major scientific journals of the field (e.g., Journal of Communication, Human Communication Research, Media Psychology), and several books, including "Media Choice: A theoretical and empirical overview." Tilo Hartmann served as member of the editorial boards of “Journal of Communication”, “Media Psychology”, “Human Communication Research”, as elected vice-chair of the “Audience and Reception Studies Division” of the German Communication Association DGPuK, as a vice-hair of ECREA's audience and reception studies division, and as secretary of ICA's game studies interest group. Tilo Hartmann is also apppointed leader of the topic "Interconnectedness" at the faculty's Institute of Societal Resilience (ISR).


In my own research, I combine communication-scientific and media-psychological expertise to illuminate how media affects users, depending on the way users subjectively process and experience media. More specifically, I try to understand how mediated illusions (including users’ parasocial interaction, virtual violence against seemingly real video game characters, and Presence experiences in Virtual Reality) as well as their biased media perceptions (including cyberchondria and hostile media biases) affect users. Furthermore, as I maintain a background in entertainment research, I am interested in understanding the psychological function and effects of media entertainment, e.g., on psychological well-being and recreation.

Ancillary activities

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Ancillary activities are updated daily


  • H Social Sciences (General)
  • Communication
  • Communication science
  • Media
  • Media psychology
  • Experience
  • Effects
  • Selective exposure
  • Presence
  • Virtual Reality
  • Video games
  • Entertainment
  • Parasocial
  • Hostile media
  • Resilience
  • Reality
  • Perceived realism
  • Illusion
  • Truth
  • Enjoyment
  • Virtual violence
  • Morality
  • Cyberchondria
  • Health anxiety
  • Outbreak communication
  • Conflict
  • Polarization
  • Mass communication
  • Internet
  • Social media
  • self-regulation
  • wellbeing

Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the person's scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher.

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Research Output 2005 2018

The spatial presence experience scale (SPES): A short self-report measure for diverse media settings

Hartmann, T., Wirth, W., Schramm, H., Klimmt, C., Vorderer, P. A., Gysbers, A., Böcking, S., Ravaja, N., Laari, J., Saari, T., Gouveia, F. R. & Sacau, A., 2016, In : Journal of Media Psychology. 28, p. 1-15

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Self Report
Communications Media

Horton and Wohl revisited: Exploring viewers’ experience of parasocial interaction

Hartmann, T. & Goldhoorn, C., 2011, In : Journal of Communication. 61, 6, p. 1104-1121 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access

The “Moral Disengagement in Violent Videogames” model

Hartmann, T., 31 Dec 2017, In : Game Studies. The International Journal of Computer Game Research.. 17, 2

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Video Games
Virtual Characters

Always on? Explicating impulsive influences on media use

van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Hartmann, T. & Du, J. D., 2018, Permanently Online, Permanently Connected: Living and Communicating in a POPC World. Vorderer, P., Hefner, D., Reinecke, L. & Klimmt, C. (eds.). New York: Routledge, p. 51-60 10 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

Entertainment as a Creature Comfort: Self-Control and Selection of Challenging Media

Eden, A., Johnson, B. K. & Hartmann, T., 2018, In : Media Psychology. 21, 3, p. 352-376 25 p.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Open Access
Motion Pictures

Activities 2016 2016

  • 2 Lecture / Presentation

How to publish a world-class (or at least top-ranked) paper

Hartmann, T. (Speaker)
10 Nov 2016

Activity: Lecture / PresentationAcademic

VR und die Veränderung unserer Wahrnehmung (How VR changes our perception)

Hartmann, T. (Speaker)
24 Nov 2016

Activity: Lecture / PresentationProfessional

Press / Media

Waarom spelen we zo graag oorlogsgames?

T. Hartmann


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Expert Comment

Waarom zijn series zo verslavend?

T. Hartmann


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Other

Forskere mener krigspill påvirker oss

T. Hartmann


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Other


T. Hartmann


1 media contribution

Press/Media: Other