In this study, the lifetime prevalence of stressful events and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general adult population in the Netherlands were examined, and risk groups for PTSD were determined. A representative sample of 2,238 adults (≥18 years) in the Netherlands completed digital questionnaires by computer-assisted self-interviewing. In total, 52.2% of the population reported at least one stressful event throughout their life. The estimated prevalence of current PTSD in the total population was 3.8%. Rape and physical assault were the stressful events most likely to be associated with PTSD, witness of injury the least likely. Stressful medical events were moderately associated with PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD was elevated among single women and middle-aged men. © 2009 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.