Many studies in recent years suggest that schizophrenia is a synaptic disease that crucially involves a hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated signaling. However, at present it is unclear how these pathological processes are reflected in the protein content of the synapse. We have employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectrometry to characterize and compare the synaptic proteomes of the human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in chronic schizophrenia and of the cerebral cortex of rats treated subchronically with ketamine. We found consistent changes in the synaptic proteomes of human schizophrenics and in rats with induced ketamine psychosis compared to controls. However, commonly regulated proteins between both groups were very limited and only prohibitin was found upregulated in both chronic schizophrenia and the rat ketamine model. Prohibitin, however, could be a new potential marker for the synaptic pathology of schizophrenia and might be causally involved in the disease process. © 2008 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.