We present a determination of the parton distributions of the nucleon from a global set of hard scattering data using the NNPDF methodology: NNPDF2.0. Experimental data include deep-inelastic scattering with the combined HERA-I dataset, fixed target Drell-Yan production, collider weak boson production and inclusive jet production. Next-to-leading order QCD is used throughout without resorting to K-factors. We present and utilize an improved fast algorithm for the solution of evolution equations and the computation of general hadronic processes. We introduce improved techniques for the training of the neural networks which are used as parton parametrization, and we use a novel approach for the proper treatment of normalization uncertainties. We assess quantitatively the impact of individual datasets on PDFs. We find very good consistency of all datasets with each other and with NLO QCD, with no evidence of tension between datasets. Some PDF combinations relevant for LHC observables turn out to be determined rather more accurately than in any other parton fit.
Bibliographical note86 pages, 41 figures. PDF sets available from http://sophia.ecm.ub.es/nnpdf/nnpdf_pdfsets.htm and from LHAPDF. Final version to be published in Nucl. Phys. B. Various typos corrected and small clarifications added, fig. 4 added, extended discussion of data consistency especially in sect 5.1 and 5.4