A formal architecture for the 3APL agent programming language

Mark d'inverno, Koen Hindriks, Michael Luck

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


The notion of agents has provided a way of imbuing traditional computing systems with an extra degree of flexibility that allows them to be more resilient and robust in the face of more varied and unpredictable forms of interaction. One class of agents, typically called intelligent agents, represent their world symbolically according to their beliefs, have goals which need to be achieved, and adopt plans or intentions to achieve them. Now, one approach to building agents is to design a programming language whose semantics are based on some theory of rational or intentional agency and to program the desired behaviour of individual agents directly using mental attitudes. Such a technique is referred to as agent oriented programming. Arguably, the most innovative of these languages is 3APL (pronounced “triple-a-p-l”) which supports the construction of intelligent agents for the development of complex systems through a set of intuitive concepts like beliefs, goals and plans. In this paper, we provide a Z specification of the programming language 3APL which provides a basis for implementation and also adds to a growing library of agent techniques and features.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationZB 2000
Subtitle of host publicationFormal Specification and Development in Z and B - 1st International Conference of B and Z Users, Proceedings
EditorsAndy Galloway, Steve King, Jonathan P. Bowen, Steve Dunne
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9783540679448
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000
Externally publishedYes
Event1st International Conference of B and Z Users, ZB 2000 - York, United Kingdom
Duration: 29 Aug 20002 Sept 2000

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference1st International Conference of B and Z Users, ZB 2000
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


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