Caffeine is by far the most commonly used psycho-active substance. Caffeine is consumed regularly as an ingredient of coffee. Coffee consumption and coffee preference was explored in a sample of 4,495 twins (including 1,231 pairs) registered with the Netherlands Twin Registry. Twin resemblance was assessed by tetrachoric correlations and the influence of both genetic and environmental factors was explored with model fitting analysis in MX. Results showed moderate genetic influences (39%) on coffee consumption. The remaining variance was explained by shared environmental factors (21%) and unique environmental factors (40%). The variance in coffee preference (defined as the proportion of coffee consumption relative to the consumption of coffee and tea in total) was explained by genetic factors (62%) and unique environmental factors (38%).