A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents

Hermine H Maes, Elizabeth Prom-Wormley, Lindon J Eaves, Soo Hyun Rhee, John K Hewitt, Susan Young, Robin Corley, Matt McGue, William G Iacono, Lisa Legrand, Diana R Samek, E Lenn Murrelle, Judy L Silberg, Donna R Miles, Richard M Schieken, Gaston P Beunen, Martine Thomis, Richard J. Rose, Danielle M. Dick, Dorret I Boomsma & 6 others Meike Bartels, Jacqueline M Vink, Paul Lichtenstein, Victoria White, Jaakko Kaprio, Michael C Neale

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence.

Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia.

Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15% to 45% from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70%) and gradually less by age 19 (40%).

Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies.

Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood. We found remarkable consistency of twin correlations across studies reflecting similar etiology of liability to initiate smoking across different cultures and time periods. Thus familial factors strongly contribute to individual differences in who starts to smoke with a gradual increase in the impact of genetic factors and a corresponding decrease in that of the shared environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-409
Number of pages9
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017

Fingerprint

Smoking
Twin Studies
Developed Countries
Individuality
Smoke
Siblings
Epidemiologic Studies
Population

Keywords

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Maes, H. H., Prom-Wormley, E., Eaves, L. J., Rhee, S. H., Hewitt, J. K., Young, S., ... Neale, M. C. (2017). A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 19(4), 401-409. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw294
Maes, Hermine H ; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth ; Eaves, Lindon J ; Rhee, Soo Hyun ; Hewitt, John K ; Young, Susan ; Corley, Robin ; McGue, Matt ; Iacono, William G ; Legrand, Lisa ; Samek, Diana R ; Murrelle, E Lenn ; Silberg, Judy L ; Miles, Donna R ; Schieken, Richard M ; Beunen, Gaston P ; Thomis, Martine ; Rose, Richard J. ; Dick, Danielle M. ; Boomsma, Dorret I ; Bartels, Meike ; Vink, Jacqueline M ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; White, Victoria ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Neale, Michael C. / A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents. In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2017 ; Vol. 19, No. 4. pp. 401-409.
@article{b7a8f26d6dcc4ec7817c85f5b2ba7877,
title = "A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents",
abstract = "Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence.Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia.Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15{\%} to 45{\%} from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70{\%}) and gradually less by age 19 (40{\%}).Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies.Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood. We found remarkable consistency of twin correlations across studies reflecting similar etiology of liability to initiate smoking across different cultures and time periods. Thus familial factors strongly contribute to individual differences in who starts to smoke with a gradual increase in the impact of genetic factors and a corresponding decrease in that of the shared environment.",
keywords = "Journal Article",
author = "Maes, {Hermine H} and Elizabeth Prom-Wormley and Eaves, {Lindon J} and Rhee, {Soo Hyun} and Hewitt, {John K} and Susan Young and Robin Corley and Matt McGue and Iacono, {William G} and Lisa Legrand and Samek, {Diana R} and Murrelle, {E Lenn} and Silberg, {Judy L} and Miles, {Donna R} and Schieken, {Richard M} and Beunen, {Gaston P} and Martine Thomis and Rose, {Richard J.} and Dick, {Danielle M.} and Boomsma, {Dorret I} and Meike Bartels and Vink, {Jacqueline M} and Paul Lichtenstein and Victoria White and Jaakko Kaprio and Neale, {Michael C}",
year = "2017",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ntr/ntw294",
language = "English",
volume = "19",
pages = "401--409",
journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
issn = "1462-2203",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

Maes, HH, Prom-Wormley, E, Eaves, LJ, Rhee, SH, Hewitt, JK, Young, S, Corley, R, McGue, M, Iacono, WG, Legrand, L, Samek, DR, Murrelle, EL, Silberg, JL, Miles, DR, Schieken, RM, Beunen, GP, Thomis, M, Rose, RJ, Dick, DM, Boomsma, DI, Bartels, M, Vink, JM, Lichtenstein, P, White, V, Kaprio, J & Neale, MC 2017, 'A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents' Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 401-409. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw294

A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents. / Maes, Hermine H; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hewitt, John K; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Legrand, Lisa; Samek, Diana R; Murrelle, E Lenn; Silberg, Judy L; Miles, Donna R; Schieken, Richard M; Beunen, Gaston P; Thomis, Martine; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; Lichtenstein, Paul; White, Victoria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Neale, Michael C.

In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, 01.04.2017, p. 401-409.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents

AU - Maes, Hermine H

AU - Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth

AU - Eaves, Lindon J

AU - Rhee, Soo Hyun

AU - Hewitt, John K

AU - Young, Susan

AU - Corley, Robin

AU - McGue, Matt

AU - Iacono, William G

AU - Legrand, Lisa

AU - Samek, Diana R

AU - Murrelle, E Lenn

AU - Silberg, Judy L

AU - Miles, Donna R

AU - Schieken, Richard M

AU - Beunen, Gaston P

AU - Thomis, Martine

AU - Rose, Richard J.

AU - Dick, Danielle M.

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I

AU - Bartels, Meike

AU - Vink, Jacqueline M

AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

AU - White, Victoria

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

AU - Neale, Michael C

PY - 2017/4/1

Y1 - 2017/4/1

N2 - Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence.Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia.Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15% to 45% from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70%) and gradually less by age 19 (40%).Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies.Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood. We found remarkable consistency of twin correlations across studies reflecting similar etiology of liability to initiate smoking across different cultures and time periods. Thus familial factors strongly contribute to individual differences in who starts to smoke with a gradual increase in the impact of genetic factors and a corresponding decrease in that of the shared environment.

AB - Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence.Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia.Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15% to 45% from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70%) and gradually less by age 19 (40%).Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies.Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood. We found remarkable consistency of twin correlations across studies reflecting similar etiology of liability to initiate smoking across different cultures and time periods. Thus familial factors strongly contribute to individual differences in who starts to smoke with a gradual increase in the impact of genetic factors and a corresponding decrease in that of the shared environment.

KW - Journal Article

U2 - 10.1093/ntr/ntw294

DO - 10.1093/ntr/ntw294

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 401

EP - 409

JO - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

JF - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

SN - 1462-2203

IS - 4

ER -

Maes HH, Prom-Wormley E, Eaves LJ, Rhee SH, Hewitt JK, Young S et al. A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2017 Apr 1;19(4):401-409. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw294