The suggested Hazmat transport Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) methodology presents a user-friendly approach to determine relative security risk levels of the different modes of hazardous freight transport (i.e., road, railway, inland waterways and pipeline transportation). First, transport routes are divided into smaller route segments. Second, likelihood scores of security-related accidents in which dangerous freight is involved and possibly causing fatalities in the surrounding population, are determined per route segment. Third, the consequences of accident scenarios (using reference products and spatial plans) are calculated in terms of the number of people within the 1% lethality distance of the accident center. Fourth, using these likelihood scores and consequence figures, transport route security risk levels are determined. Fifth, transshipment risks are considered for determining the final transport route security risk levels. This leads to a multi-modal user-friendly security threat assessment tool which can be used by policy makers as well as by industrialists (shippers or Logistics Service Providers). The generic method allows for comparing the security risk levels of the different route segments and routes of transportation of hazardous goods and for taking countermeasures from a uni-modal as well as from a multi-modal perspective. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.