The effectiveness of different interventions for challenging behavior (CB) in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) was reviewed by means of a two-phase study. First, a systematic review of 137 meta-analyses and reviews on group-study interventions for CB in persons with ID was conducted. Based on this review, hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of divergent interventions for CB and concerning the impact of variables moderating treatment effectiveness were systematically generated. Second, these hypotheses were tested by means of a multilevel meta-analysis of single-case and small- n research. Two hundred and eighty-five studies reporting on 598 individuals were examined. The average treatment effect was large and statistically significant. However, this effect varied significantly over the included studies and participants. Compared to the meta-analyses and reviews focusing on group-studies in this research domain, the results of the present multilevel meta-analysis of single-case and small- n intervention research provided more detailed knowledge on which specific CB and intervention components moderate the interventions' effectiveness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.