A multiscale gaming approach to understand farmer’s decision making in the boom of maize cultivation in Laos

Christine Ornetsmüller*, Jean Christophe Castella, Peter H. Verburg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In Southeast Asia, the rapid expansion of boom crops like hybrid maize, rubber, oil palm, or banana, has brought about daunting environmental and socioeconomic impacts such as deforestation, land degradation, and indebtedness. Why do farmers engage in and keep on pursuing this farming strategy despite the adverse effects on local landscapes and livelihoods? In the context of the northern uplands of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), we developed an innovative approach to understanding the decisions that lead to the emergence of the maize boom. We successively studied the adoption, expansion, intensification, diversification, and abandonment of intensive maize practices in locations in which these phases were ongoing at the time of study. To better contextualize decision making, we designed and applied local, serious games with farmers in seven different villages that were going through a maize boom. Then we designed a metagame that summarized our findings across all decision phases and local games in a generalized form. National agricultural experts validated the structure of the metagame by taking on the role of farmers and they witnessed that their cumulative decision making within the metagame lead to a maize boom too. Core findings include: (1) the maize boom and bust can be reproduced in a game environment that simulates the change of six factor combinations; and (2) Farmers in northern Laos reinvest maize profits into their long-term, socioeconomic goals. The approach presented combines micro-and macrolevel analysis of land-use change. On the one hand, it allows the exploration of the local, social-ecological contexts of land-use decisions. On the other hand, it provides a systematic procedure to scale up, generalize, and test the contextual knowledge and systemic understanding of a complex, large-scale land-use change process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalEcology and Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


Copyright © 2018 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. Ornetsmüller, C., J.-C. Castella, and P. H. Verburg. 2018. A multiscale gaming approach to understand farmer’s decision making in the boom of maize cultivation in Laos. Ecology and Society 23(2):35. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10104-230235 Support for the research was provided by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme ERC Grant Agreement nr. 311819 - GLOLAND and the Global Climate Change Alliance (EFICAS Project). Support from the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) was also granted under the NUDP-CA Project. We acknowledge the Department for Agricultural Land Management DALaM and CIRAD Laos as key partners in the field survey and thank all participants and assisting facilitators for their contributions.

FundersFunder number
Seventh Framework Programme311819
European Research Council
Seventh Framework Programme


    • Agrarian transition
    • Boom crop
    • Decision making
    • Gaming and simulation
    • Land-use trajectory
    • Southeast Asia


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