NDUFV1 mutations have been related to encephalopathic phenotypes due to mitochondrial energy metabolism disturbances. In this study, we report two siblings affected by a diffuse leukodystrophy, who carry the NDUFV1 c.1156C>T (p.Arg386Cys) missense mutation and a novel 42-bp deletion. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis indicated that this deletion lead to the synthesis of mRNA molecules carrying a premature stop codon, which might be degraded by the nonsense-mediated decay system. Our results add information on the molecular basis and the phenotypic features of mitochondrial disease caused by NDUFV1 mutations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.