A quasi-experimental, longitudinal evaluation of a school-based bicycle helmet campaign for children age 4–8 years in the Netherlands

Marjolein Boele-Vos, Charles Goldenbeld, Maura van Strijp-Houtenbos, Jacques J.F. Commandeur, Divera A.M. Twisk

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Head injury severity may be reduced by a helmet, however, helmets are not mandatory in the Netherlands. Yet public support for voluntary use of helmets for children is high. This study evaluated the effect of a five-year school-based campaign (4- to 8-year-olds) on helmet-wearing rates and identified its success and failure factors. We compared observed helmet-wearing rates before the campaign, with yearly rates during programme, and related those to wearing rates in a control area. Parents, together with their children, completed questionnaires on self-reported helmet wearing, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers. Results showed that observed helmet wearing increased in the first campaign year but varied in later years. This variation in rates coincided with variations in campaign intensity over the years. Factors associated with self-reported helmet wearing were age, with higher wearing rates for younger children than older children, and parental rules for helmet use. Children and parents are positive toward helmet use when children are perceived to be less competent cyclists. The most important reason for not wearing helmets is that peers do not wear helmets. Overall, parents and children seem to be influenced by the norm in the Netherlands that children above a certain age cycle without a helmet.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Transportation Safety and Security
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

Fingerprint

Bicycles
bicycle
Netherlands
campaign
Wear of materials
evaluation
school
parents
public support
questionnaire

Keywords

  • Evaluation
  • follow-up
  • free bicycle helmet
  • school-based campaign

Cite this

@article{b0a9abb5c450450e995a38dc7bc5bb2a,
title = "A quasi-experimental, longitudinal evaluation of a school-based bicycle helmet campaign for children age 4–8 years in the Netherlands",
abstract = "Head injury severity may be reduced by a helmet, however, helmets are not mandatory in the Netherlands. Yet public support for voluntary use of helmets for children is high. This study evaluated the effect of a five-year school-based campaign (4- to 8-year-olds) on helmet-wearing rates and identified its success and failure factors. We compared observed helmet-wearing rates before the campaign, with yearly rates during programme, and related those to wearing rates in a control area. Parents, together with their children, completed questionnaires on self-reported helmet wearing, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers. Results showed that observed helmet wearing increased in the first campaign year but varied in later years. This variation in rates coincided with variations in campaign intensity over the years. Factors associated with self-reported helmet wearing were age, with higher wearing rates for younger children than older children, and parental rules for helmet use. Children and parents are positive toward helmet use when children are perceived to be less competent cyclists. The most important reason for not wearing helmets is that peers do not wear helmets. Overall, parents and children seem to be influenced by the norm in the Netherlands that children above a certain age cycle without a helmet.",
keywords = "Evaluation, follow-up, free bicycle helmet, school-based campaign",
author = "Marjolein Boele-Vos and Charles Goldenbeld and {van Strijp-Houtenbos}, Maura and Commandeur, {Jacques J.F.} and Twisk, {Divera A.M.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1080/19439962.2019.1591552",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Transportation Safety and Security",
issn = "1943-9962",
publisher = "Taylor& Francis",

}

A quasi-experimental, longitudinal evaluation of a school-based bicycle helmet campaign for children age 4–8 years in the Netherlands. / Boele-Vos, Marjolein; Goldenbeld, Charles; van Strijp-Houtenbos, Maura; Commandeur, Jacques J.F.; Twisk, Divera A.M.

In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A quasi-experimental, longitudinal evaluation of a school-based bicycle helmet campaign for children age 4–8 years in the Netherlands

AU - Boele-Vos, Marjolein

AU - Goldenbeld, Charles

AU - van Strijp-Houtenbos, Maura

AU - Commandeur, Jacques J.F.

AU - Twisk, Divera A.M.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Head injury severity may be reduced by a helmet, however, helmets are not mandatory in the Netherlands. Yet public support for voluntary use of helmets for children is high. This study evaluated the effect of a five-year school-based campaign (4- to 8-year-olds) on helmet-wearing rates and identified its success and failure factors. We compared observed helmet-wearing rates before the campaign, with yearly rates during programme, and related those to wearing rates in a control area. Parents, together with their children, completed questionnaires on self-reported helmet wearing, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers. Results showed that observed helmet wearing increased in the first campaign year but varied in later years. This variation in rates coincided with variations in campaign intensity over the years. Factors associated with self-reported helmet wearing were age, with higher wearing rates for younger children than older children, and parental rules for helmet use. Children and parents are positive toward helmet use when children are perceived to be less competent cyclists. The most important reason for not wearing helmets is that peers do not wear helmets. Overall, parents and children seem to be influenced by the norm in the Netherlands that children above a certain age cycle without a helmet.

AB - Head injury severity may be reduced by a helmet, however, helmets are not mandatory in the Netherlands. Yet public support for voluntary use of helmets for children is high. This study evaluated the effect of a five-year school-based campaign (4- to 8-year-olds) on helmet-wearing rates and identified its success and failure factors. We compared observed helmet-wearing rates before the campaign, with yearly rates during programme, and related those to wearing rates in a control area. Parents, together with their children, completed questionnaires on self-reported helmet wearing, attitudes, beliefs, and barriers. Results showed that observed helmet wearing increased in the first campaign year but varied in later years. This variation in rates coincided with variations in campaign intensity over the years. Factors associated with self-reported helmet wearing were age, with higher wearing rates for younger children than older children, and parental rules for helmet use. Children and parents are positive toward helmet use when children are perceived to be less competent cyclists. The most important reason for not wearing helmets is that peers do not wear helmets. Overall, parents and children seem to be influenced by the norm in the Netherlands that children above a certain age cycle without a helmet.

KW - Evaluation

KW - follow-up

KW - free bicycle helmet

KW - school-based campaign

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064477426&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064477426&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/19439962.2019.1591552

DO - 10.1080/19439962.2019.1591552

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Transportation Safety and Security

JF - Journal of Transportation Safety and Security

SN - 1943-9962

ER -