A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of Neurofeedback, Methylphenidate, and Physical Activity on Event-Related Potentials in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

T.W.P. Janssen, M. Bink, K. Gelade, R. van Mourik, A. Maras, J. Oosterlaan

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NF) is considered a nonpharmacological alternative for medication in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparisons of the behavioral efficacy of NF and medication have produced inconsistent results. EEG measures can provide insight into treatment mechanisms, but have received little consideration. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), effects of NF were compared with methylphenidate (MPH), and physical activity (PA) in children with ADHD on event-related potential (ERP) indices of response inhibition, which are involved in ADHD psychopathology. Methods: Using a multicenter three way parallel group RCT design, 112 children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association 1994) diagnosis of ADHD, between 7 and 13 years of age, were initially included. NF training consisted of 30 sessions of theta/beta training at Cz over a 10 week period. PA training was a semiactive control group, matched in frequency and duration. MPH was titrated using a double-blind placebo controlled procedure in 6 weeks, followed by a stable dose for 4 weeks. ERP measures of response inhibition, N2 and P3, were available for 81 children at pre- and postintervention (n = 32 NF, n = 25 MPH, n = 24 PA). Results: Only the medication group showed a specific increase in P3 amplitude compared with NF (partial eta-squared [η
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jan 2016

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