A schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors

Silvia Espín*, Jovan Andevski, Guy Duke, Igor Eulaers, Pilar Gómez-Ramírez, Gunnar Thor Hallgrimsson, Björn Helander, Dorte Herzke, Veerle L.B. Jaspers, Oliver Krone, Rui Lourenço, Pedro María-Mojica, Emma Martínez-López, Rafael Mateo, Paola Movalli, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Richard F. Shore, Christian Sonne, Nico W. van den Brink, Bert van HattumAl Vrezec, Chris Wernham, Antonio J. García-Fernández

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Birds of prey, owls and falcons are widely used as sentinel species in raptor biomonitoring programmes. A major current challenge is to facilitate large-scale biomonitoring by coordinating contaminant monitoring activities and by building capacity across countries. This requires sharing, dissemination and adoption of best practices addressed by the Networking Programme Research and Monitoring for and with Raptors in Europe (EURAPMON) and now being advanced by the ongoing international COST Action European Raptor Biomonitoring Facility. The present perspective introduces a schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors. We provide guidance on sample collection with a view to increasing sampling capacity across countries, ensuring appropriate quality of samples and facilitating harmonization of procedures to maximize the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The here presented protocol can be used by professionals and volunteers as a standard guide to ensure harmonised sampling methods for contaminant monitoring in raptors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-100
Number of pages6
Issue number1
Early online date12 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Best practices
  • Birds of prey
  • Falcons
  • Large-scale biomonitoring
  • Owls
  • Pan-European network


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