A short form of the Autonomy Scale: Properties of the Autonomy- Connectedness Scale (ACS-30)

Marrie H.J. Bekker*, Marcel A.L.M. Van Assen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Autonomy Scale (Bekker, 1993) measures individual differences in gender-linked autonomy, a psychological condition resulting from the process of individuation and separation. The theoretical background of the concept is found in a combination of feminist, neoanalytical object relations theory and attachment theory. The 3 subscales are Self-Awareness, Sensitivity to Others, and Capacity for Managing New Situations. We report the development and properties of the Autonomy-Connectedness Scale (ACS-30), a shortened 30-item version of the Autonomy Scale. We present 2 studies. In the first study, we examined the structure of the scale as well as its validity and reliability. The second study was aimed at further validation by relating the ACS-30 to various indexes of psychopathology. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor structure that was identical to that of the original scale. The ACS-30 showed good internal consistency reliability and an expected pattern of convergent validity with personality and mental health variables. The psychometric properties of the ACS-30 suggest it can be used to assess gender-linked autonomy. It also has the advantage of being more economical and simple as compared with the original 50-item version.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-60
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


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