The authors examined the genetic and environmental causes of the co-occurrence of problem behaviors in children. The analyses involved mother and father ratings of Oppositional, Withdrawn/Depressed, Aggressive, Anxious, Overactive, and Sleep Problems in 446 monozygotic and 912 dizygotic pairs of 3-year-old twins. Genetic factors contributed on average .150 (37.3%), shared environment .206 (51.2%), and nonshared environment .046 (11.4%) to the phenotypic correlations between the syndromes. Genetic and environmental factors caused different groupings. Internalizing and Externalizing groupings were indicative of nonshared environmental factors; clusters of problem behaviors with either the Aggressive or Anxious symptoms were most suggestive of genetic factors, and high scores on all syndromes indicated shared environmental influences.
- Netherlands Twin Register (NTR)