Background A review update is necessary to document evidence regarding the effectiveness of computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to summarize the latest evidence on the effectiveness of computer-tailoredphysical activity and nutrition education, and to compare the results to the 2006 review. Methods Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education aimed at primary prevention in adults, published from September 2004 through June 2011. Results Compared to the findings in 2006, a larger proportion of studies found positive effects for computer-tailored programs compared to generic or no information, including those for physical activity promotion. Effect sizes were small and generally at short- or medium-term follow-up. Conclusions The results of the 2006 review were confirmed and reinforced. Future interventions should focus onestablishing larger effect sizes and sustained effects and include more generic health education control groups and objective measurements of dietary behavior. © The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2012.