A virtual reality application for aggression de-escalation training in public transport

Romy A.M. Blankendaal, Charlotte Gerritsen, Marco Otte, Tibor Bosse

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


To train public transport employees to deal with aggressive passengers, simulation-based training can be a cost-effective instrument. Within this research a virtual reality training application for bus drivers has been developed. The application consists of 10 different scenarios that can be used to practice how to act during confrontations with aggressive passengers. During each scenario, the user will have a conversation through text and pre-recorded sentences with an intelligent virtual agent. In addition, during the training the user will have to determine the kind of aggression that is shown by the passenger, choose the right communication style and decide whether or not to report the incident at the end of the scenario. This paper describes the full development of the application and the scenarios, as well as the first experiences reported during a pilot study. Suggestions for improvement and future work are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBNAIC 2018
Subtitle of host publicationPreProceedings of the 30th Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence
EditorsM. Atzmueller, W. Duijvesteijn
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2018
Event30th Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence, BNAIC 2018 - s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands
Duration: 8 Nov 20189 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameBelgian/Netherlands Artificial Intelligence Conference
ISSN (Print)1568-7805


Conference30th Benelux Conference on Artificial Intelligence, BNAIC 2018


This research was supported by funding from the Ministry of Justice and Security. The project was executed in collaboration with Allerto and RET. The authors of this paper would like to thank the actors Sander and Rianne for recording their voices and facial expressions used for the virtual passengers in the application. In addition, the authors would like to thank Laura van der Lubbe and Pepijn Otte for their contributions to this project.

FundersFunder number
Ministry of Justice and Security


    • Aggression de-escalation training
    • Human-agent interaction
    • Intelligent virtual agents
    • Public transport
    • Virtual reality


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