Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting

M.P. de Looze, H. Groen, H. Horemans, I. Kingma, J.H. van Dieen

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it was hypothesised that the relative abdominal contribution to compression would be minor in the beginning of the lift, that the relative and absolute abdominal contribution to compression would rise throughout the lift, and that the obliques would contribute to a larger extent than the rectus abdominis. To investigate these hypotheses, 10 subjects lifted 0.5, 10.5 and 22.5 kg. EMG levels obtained from the rectus abdominis and the obliques were converted into force using normalized EMG, muscle potential and area values, and modulating factors for muscle length and contraction velocity. An anatomical model was applied to compute the abdominal effects on spinal compression in three consecutive phases within a lift. If expressed relative to the total spinal compression, the abdominal contribution for the three weight conditions was 7.1% (SD, 1.7), 10.4% (4.7) and 12.5% (4.4) in the begin and 21.0% (5.8), 19.0% (5.3) and 22.2% (6.6) in the end phase. Thus, the relative abdominal contribution to compression was minor in the beginning and increased towards the end. The absolute abdominal contribution was constant throughout the lift. The contributions could be retraced to the obliques rather than the rectus, while during the lift a shift in activation from the obliquus externus to internus was observed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)655-662
    JournalJournal of Biomechanics
    Volume32
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1999

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    Abdominal Muscles
    Rectus Abdominis
    Muscle
    Anatomic Models
    Muscle Contraction
    Spine
    Weights and Measures
    Muscles
    Chemical activation

    Cite this

    @article{b325b32da2924333baf05f43c272e3c6,
    title = "Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting",
    abstract = "In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it was hypothesised that the relative abdominal contribution to compression would be minor in the beginning of the lift, that the relative and absolute abdominal contribution to compression would rise throughout the lift, and that the obliques would contribute to a larger extent than the rectus abdominis. To investigate these hypotheses, 10 subjects lifted 0.5, 10.5 and 22.5 kg. EMG levels obtained from the rectus abdominis and the obliques were converted into force using normalized EMG, muscle potential and area values, and modulating factors for muscle length and contraction velocity. An anatomical model was applied to compute the abdominal effects on spinal compression in three consecutive phases within a lift. If expressed relative to the total spinal compression, the abdominal contribution for the three weight conditions was 7.1{\%} (SD, 1.7), 10.4{\%} (4.7) and 12.5{\%} (4.4) in the begin and 21.0{\%} (5.8), 19.0{\%} (5.3) and 22.2{\%} (6.6) in the end phase. Thus, the relative abdominal contribution to compression was minor in the beginning and increased towards the end. The absolute abdominal contribution was constant throughout the lift. The contributions could be retraced to the obliques rather than the rectus, while during the lift a shift in activation from the obliquus externus to internus was observed.",
    author = "{de Looze}, M.P. and H. Groen and H. Horemans and I. Kingma and {van Dieen}, J.H.",
    year = "1999",
    doi = "10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00061-5",
    language = "English",
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    Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting. / de Looze, M.P.; Groen, H.; Horemans, H.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    In: Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 32, No. 7, 1999, p. 655-662.

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting

    AU - de Looze, M.P.

    AU - Groen, H.

    AU - Horemans, H.

    AU - Kingma, I.

    AU - van Dieen, J.H.

    PY - 1999

    Y1 - 1999

    N2 - In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it was hypothesised that the relative abdominal contribution to compression would be minor in the beginning of the lift, that the relative and absolute abdominal contribution to compression would rise throughout the lift, and that the obliques would contribute to a larger extent than the rectus abdominis. To investigate these hypotheses, 10 subjects lifted 0.5, 10.5 and 22.5 kg. EMG levels obtained from the rectus abdominis and the obliques were converted into force using normalized EMG, muscle potential and area values, and modulating factors for muscle length and contraction velocity. An anatomical model was applied to compute the abdominal effects on spinal compression in three consecutive phases within a lift. If expressed relative to the total spinal compression, the abdominal contribution for the three weight conditions was 7.1% (SD, 1.7), 10.4% (4.7) and 12.5% (4.4) in the begin and 21.0% (5.8), 19.0% (5.3) and 22.2% (6.6) in the end phase. Thus, the relative abdominal contribution to compression was minor in the beginning and increased towards the end. The absolute abdominal contribution was constant throughout the lift. The contributions could be retraced to the obliques rather than the rectus, while during the lift a shift in activation from the obliquus externus to internus was observed.

    AB - In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it was hypothesised that the relative abdominal contribution to compression would be minor in the beginning of the lift, that the relative and absolute abdominal contribution to compression would rise throughout the lift, and that the obliques would contribute to a larger extent than the rectus abdominis. To investigate these hypotheses, 10 subjects lifted 0.5, 10.5 and 22.5 kg. EMG levels obtained from the rectus abdominis and the obliques were converted into force using normalized EMG, muscle potential and area values, and modulating factors for muscle length and contraction velocity. An anatomical model was applied to compute the abdominal effects on spinal compression in three consecutive phases within a lift. If expressed relative to the total spinal compression, the abdominal contribution for the three weight conditions was 7.1% (SD, 1.7), 10.4% (4.7) and 12.5% (4.4) in the begin and 21.0% (5.8), 19.0% (5.3) and 22.2% (6.6) in the end phase. Thus, the relative abdominal contribution to compression was minor in the beginning and increased towards the end. The absolute abdominal contribution was constant throughout the lift. The contributions could be retraced to the obliques rather than the rectus, while during the lift a shift in activation from the obliquus externus to internus was observed.

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