This study aims to explore whether orexin 1 receptors (Orx1R) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG) play a role in the modulation of migraine headaches in adult male Wistar rats. To model chronic migraine-associated pain, nitroglycerin (NTG) (5 mg/kg/IP) was administered to test subjects every second day for 9 days. After the last NTG injection, rats were randomly separated into the following groups (n = 6): orexin-A (OrxA) groups that received intra-vlPAG OrxA (25, 50, and 100 pM), an Orx1R antagonist group, a SB-334867 (20 μM) group; and a SB-334867 (20 μM) + OrxA (100 pM) group. After 10 min, migraine-associated behavioral symptoms were recorded in all animals for up to 90 min. Light-dark chamber and hot plate tests were used for assessing light aversion and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive cells were detected in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Vc) by immunofluorescence microscopy. NTG caused significant freezing behavior, which was prevented by all OrxA doses. Moreover, OrxA (100 pM) could obstruct NTG-induced increases in facial rubbing and decreases in climbing and body grooming. Furthermore, NTG-induced light aversion and thermal hyperalgesia were attenuated by OrxA at doses of 50 and 100 pM. The effects of OrxA were significantly blocked by SB-334867 (20 μM). Besides, OrxA (100 pM) decreased NTG-induced CGRP upregulation. The data revealed that the activation of Orx1Rs in the vlPAG is effective in relieving NTG-induced migraine symptoms mainly by the downregulation of CGRP in the Vc of rats.