This study aims to rethink the integration of spiritual care into healthcare in spiritually plural societies. Based on a systematic review of the theoretical literature, we analysed 74 studies and distinguish four positions regarding the integration of spiritual care into healthcare: generalist-particularists who see the spiritual domain as a field to be addressed by all professional caregivers and in which caregivers’ own spiritual orientations play a vital role; generalist-universalists who advocate for all caregivers to provide spiritual care regardless of their spiritual orientations; specialist-particularists who argue that experts should address the spiritual domain in light of their own spiritual orientations; and specialist-universalists who call for experts to provide spiritual care regardless of their spiritual orientations. We argue that these four positions give different weight to the professional, personal, and confessional roles of the spiritual caregiver. Acknowledging these positions is a prerequisite for future scenarios of integrating spiritual care into healthcare.
- spiritual care