Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a study investigating the aetiology and incidence of patients with maxillofacial fractures in Amsterdam over a period of 10 years. Results: The study population consisted of 408 males and 171 females with a mean age of 35.9 (SD: ±16.3) years. The age group 20-29 years accounted for the largest subgroup in both sexes. The most common cause of the fractures was traffic related, followed by violence. There were mainly mandibular and zygomatic bone fractures in both males and females, accounting for approximately 80% of all fractures. The main fracture site of the mandible was the combination of mandibular body with mandibular condyle (66 patients; 26.8%), followed by the combination of bilateral condylar fracture and fracture of the symphysis (43 patients; 17.5%). In fractures of the upper 2/3 of the face, zygomatic bone fractures were most common. In patients with alcohol consumption the injury was mostly the result of violence. In conclusion, this report provides important data for the design of plans for injury prevention, as compared with previous studies. Violence related injuries are increasing whereas fractures caused by traffic accidents are decreasing. © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery.