Air-Stable and Oriented Mixed Lead Halide Perovskite (FA/MA) by the One-Step Deposition Method Using Zinc Iodide and an Alkylammonium Additive

Loreta A. Muscarella, Dina Petrova, Rebecca Jorge Cervasio, Aram Farawar, Olivier Lugier, Charlotte McLure, Martin J. Slaman, Junke Wang, Bruno Ehrler, Elizabeth Von Hauff, René M. Williams*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We present a one-step method to produce air-stable, large-grain mixed cationic lead perovskite films and powders under ambient conditions. The introduction of 2.5 % of Zn(II), confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), results in stable thin films which show the same absorption and crystal structure after 2 weeks of storage under ambient conditions. Next to prolonged stability, the introduction of Zn(II) affects photophysical properties, reducing the bulk defect density, enhancing the photoluminescence (PL), and extending the charge carrier lifetime. Furthermore, 3-chloropropylamine hydrochloride is applied as the film-forming agent. The presence of this amine hydrochloride additive results in highly oriented and large crystal domains showing an ulterior improvement of PL intensity and lifetime. The material can also be prepared as black precursor powder by a solid-solid reaction under ambient conditions and can be pressed into a perovskite pellet. The prolonged stability and the easy fabrication in air makes this material suitable for large-scale, low-cost processing for optoelectronic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17555-17562
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number19
Early online date16 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2019


  • photovoltaics
  • hybrid perovskite
  • formamidinium
  • methylammonium
  • 3-chloropropylamine chloride
  • zinc iodide
  • chloride additive

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