Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment.

I. v.d. Stap, M. Vos, B.W. Kooi, B.T. Mulling, E.. van Donk, W.M. Mooij

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population stability and predator persistence as a function of flow-through rate. The model exhibits three major types of behavior at a high nutrient concentration: (1) at high dilution rates, only algae exist; (2) at intermediate dilution rates, algae and rotifers show stable coexistence; (3) at low dilution rates, large population fluctuations occur, with low minimum densities entailing a risk of stochastic rotifer extinctions. The size and location of the corresponding areas in parameter space critically depend on the type of algal defense strategy. In an 83-day high-nutrient chemostat experiment we changed the dilution rate every 3 weeks, from 0.7 to 0.5 to 0.3 to 0.1 per day. Within this range of dilution rates, rotifers and algae coexisted, and population fluctuations of algae clearly increased as dilution rates decreased. The CV of herbivore densities was highest at the end of the experiment, when the dilution rate was low. On day 80, herbivorous rotifers had become undetectable in all three chemostats with permanently defended algae (where rotifer densities had already been low) and in two out of three chemostats where rotifers had been feeding on algae with inducible defenses (that represented more edible food). We interpret our results in relation to the paradox of enrichment. © The Ecological Society of Japan 2009.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1145-1153
JournalEcological Research
Volume24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

algae
chemostat
Rotifera
herbivore
herbivores
extinction
dilution
alga
experiment
predators
predator
defence
rate
nutrient
plankton
nutrient content
coexistence
population dynamics
Japan
persistence

Cite this

v.d. Stap, I. ; Vos, M. ; Kooi, B.W. ; Mulling, B.T. ; van Donk, E.. ; Mooij, W.M. / Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment. In: Ecological Research. 2009 ; Vol. 24. pp. 1145-1153.
@article{e328ea8ba7c041a491c80961f6ddb64d,
title = "Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment.",
abstract = "The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population stability and predator persistence as a function of flow-through rate. The model exhibits three major types of behavior at a high nutrient concentration: (1) at high dilution rates, only algae exist; (2) at intermediate dilution rates, algae and rotifers show stable coexistence; (3) at low dilution rates, large population fluctuations occur, with low minimum densities entailing a risk of stochastic rotifer extinctions. The size and location of the corresponding areas in parameter space critically depend on the type of algal defense strategy. In an 83-day high-nutrient chemostat experiment we changed the dilution rate every 3 weeks, from 0.7 to 0.5 to 0.3 to 0.1 per day. Within this range of dilution rates, rotifers and algae coexisted, and population fluctuations of algae clearly increased as dilution rates decreased. The CV of herbivore densities was highest at the end of the experiment, when the dilution rate was low. On day 80, herbivorous rotifers had become undetectable in all three chemostats with permanently defended algae (where rotifer densities had already been low) and in two out of three chemostats where rotifers had been feeding on algae with inducible defenses (that represented more edible food). We interpret our results in relation to the paradox of enrichment. {\circledC} The Ecological Society of Japan 2009.",
author = "{v.d. Stap}, I. and M. Vos and B.W. Kooi and B.T. Mulling and {van Donk}, E.. and W.M. Mooij",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1007/s11284-009-0596-3",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1145--1153",
journal = "Ecological Research",
issn = "0912-3814",
publisher = "Springer Japan",

}

Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment. / v.d. Stap, I.; Vos, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Mulling, B.T.; van Donk, E..; Mooij, W.M.

In: Ecological Research, Vol. 24, 2009, p. 1145-1153.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment.

AU - v.d. Stap, I.

AU - Vos, M.

AU - Kooi, B.W.

AU - Mulling, B.T.

AU - van Donk, E..

AU - Mooij, W.M.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population stability and predator persistence as a function of flow-through rate. The model exhibits three major types of behavior at a high nutrient concentration: (1) at high dilution rates, only algae exist; (2) at intermediate dilution rates, algae and rotifers show stable coexistence; (3) at low dilution rates, large population fluctuations occur, with low minimum densities entailing a risk of stochastic rotifer extinctions. The size and location of the corresponding areas in parameter space critically depend on the type of algal defense strategy. In an 83-day high-nutrient chemostat experiment we changed the dilution rate every 3 weeks, from 0.7 to 0.5 to 0.3 to 0.1 per day. Within this range of dilution rates, rotifers and algae coexisted, and population fluctuations of algae clearly increased as dilution rates decreased. The CV of herbivore densities was highest at the end of the experiment, when the dilution rate was low. On day 80, herbivorous rotifers had become undetectable in all three chemostats with permanently defended algae (where rotifer densities had already been low) and in two out of three chemostats where rotifers had been feeding on algae with inducible defenses (that represented more edible food). We interpret our results in relation to the paradox of enrichment. © The Ecological Society of Japan 2009.

AB - The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population stability and predator persistence as a function of flow-through rate. The model exhibits three major types of behavior at a high nutrient concentration: (1) at high dilution rates, only algae exist; (2) at intermediate dilution rates, algae and rotifers show stable coexistence; (3) at low dilution rates, large population fluctuations occur, with low minimum densities entailing a risk of stochastic rotifer extinctions. The size and location of the corresponding areas in parameter space critically depend on the type of algal defense strategy. In an 83-day high-nutrient chemostat experiment we changed the dilution rate every 3 weeks, from 0.7 to 0.5 to 0.3 to 0.1 per day. Within this range of dilution rates, rotifers and algae coexisted, and population fluctuations of algae clearly increased as dilution rates decreased. The CV of herbivore densities was highest at the end of the experiment, when the dilution rate was low. On day 80, herbivorous rotifers had become undetectable in all three chemostats with permanently defended algae (where rotifer densities had already been low) and in two out of three chemostats where rotifers had been feeding on algae with inducible defenses (that represented more edible food). We interpret our results in relation to the paradox of enrichment. © The Ecological Society of Japan 2009.

U2 - 10.1007/s11284-009-0596-3

DO - 10.1007/s11284-009-0596-3

M3 - Article

VL - 24

SP - 1145

EP - 1153

JO - Ecological Research

JF - Ecological Research

SN - 0912-3814

ER -