alpha-Bromoisovalerylurea as model substrate for studies on pharmacokinetics of glutathione conjugation in the rat. II. Pharmacokinetics and stereoselectivity of metabolism and excretion in vivo and in the perfused liver

J.M. te Koppele, P Dogterom, N P Vermeulen, D K Meijer, A. van der Gen, G J Mulder

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The hypnotic drug alpha-bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) has been studied in the rat with respect to its potential use as model substrate to investigate the pharmacokinetics of glutathione conjugation in vivo. The major metabolites of racemic BIU are the diastereomeric glutathione conjugates (bile) and mercapturates (urine). BIU was metabolized mainly by glutathione conjugation: after i.v. administration of [14C]BIU to freely moving rats, 89% of the dose was recovered in urine within 24 hr, mostly as mercapturates. The rate-limiting step in the clearance of BIU from blood most likely is glutathione conjugation as it was shown that rate-limitation is not due to flow-limited clearance in the liver (the initial extraction ratio of BIU in the perfused liver preparation was low: hepatic extraction ratio = 0.23), protein binding (60% was unbound in plasma) or enzyme saturation (linear pharmacokinetics in the dose range studied: 22-270 mumol/kg). Water solubility of BIU was sufficient to allow its i.v. administration, whereas the absence of toxic effects enables animal as well as human studies. Thus, BIU is a promising model substrate for studies of glutathione conjugation in vivo. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats with a bile duct catheter, equal amounts of metabolites were excreted in bile (almost exclusively as the two diastereomeric BIU glutathione conjugates) and urine (mostly as the two diastereomeric mercapturates). Based on similar experiments with bile duct-ligated rats, it was concluded that the appearance of the mercapturates in urine could also occur without biliary excretion and subsequent gut metabolism of the BIU glutathione conjugates. The ability of the liver to metabolize BIU was studied in a hemoglobin-free, recirculating liver perfusion system. Of the recovered radioactivity 40% was excreted in bile within 2 hr, almost exclusively in the form of the two BIU glutathione conjugates. Also, glutathione conjugates were found in the perfusate (16% of the radioactivity present in the perfusate after 2 hr). A distinct stereoselectivity was observed in the metabolite excretion rates. The excretion half-lives of the two diastereomeric glutathione conjugates in bile differed 2- to 3-fold, both in anesthetized rats and in the perfused liver preparation. A similar difference in excretion half-lives was found for the urinary excretion of the diastereomeric mercapturates. Thus, BIU can be used to investigate in vivo the stereoselectivity of glutathione conjugation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-14
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume239
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1986

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Bromisovalum
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Glutathione
  • Half-Life
  • Kinetics
  • Liver
  • Mathematics
  • Perfusion
  • Rats
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Urea
  • Journal Article

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