Currently, emotion regulation goals are being perceived as highly situational. This assumption might be wrong, though, as the preeminent measure [the intraclass coefficient (1), ICC(1)] overestimates the proportion of within-variance under the condition of measurement error. We therefore empirically test whether emotion regulation goals represent more of a between-person or a within-person phenomenon, using the reliability-adjusted ICC(1). A total of 305 students participated in a daily diary study and answered a questionnaire about their emotion regulation goals in the most negative event of the day over the course of 9 days. Multilevel analyses suggest that emotion regulation goals vary more between persons than heretofore assumed, especially for hedonic goals, but also for social goals. Besides, we show substantial differences in the within-variance across individuals. We conclude by discussing theoretical implications for general and clinical psychology.
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- Emotion regulation goals
- Emotion regulation motives
- Reliability-adjusted ICC(1)