An ecological momentary intervention incorporating personalised feedback to improve symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders

Esther Hanssen*, Sanne Balvert, Margreet Oorschot, Karel Borkelmans, Jim van Os, Philippe Delespaul, Anne Kathrin Fett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticle


This study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of an interactive smartphone application that aimed to improve daily-life social functioning and symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ) with Experience Sampling Method (ESM) derived personalised feedback.Two groups of outpatients with a diagnosis of SZ were included (one receiving ESM-derived personalised feedback (n = 27) and one without feedback (n = 23)) and used the interactive smartphone application for three weeks. Main outcomes were momentary symptoms and social functioning, as assessed by ESM questionnaires. Additionally, feasibility and user-friendliness of the application were assessed. The response rate was 64% for the ESM questionnaires. In the feedback group, participants indicated that on 49% of the ESM days they acted on at least one personalised feedback prompt per day. Momentary psychotic symptoms significantly decreased over time only in the feedback group. Momentary loneliness and questionnaire-assessed psychotic symptoms decreased over time, irrespective of feedback. Participants evaluated the app as user-friendly and understandable. Momentary personalised feedback may impact momentary psychosis in daily life. Feelings of loneliness and questionnaire-based measured psychotic symptoms may be more responsive to non-specific effects of daily-life self-monitoring, not requiring specific feedback. Ecological momentary interventions offer opportunities for accessible and effective interventions in SZ.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112695
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalPsychiatry Research
Early online date28 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020



  • Experience sampling method
  • Intervention
  • Mobile health
  • Psychoses
  • Social contact
  • Treatment

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