According to the ancient Indian scholar Kautilya (350-275 BC), a leader can only be successful if he or she considers philosophy to be of equal importance to economics and politics, because a philosophical foundation will infuse into praxis the principles of self-regulation, care, and transcendence. Although Kautilya’s teachings originally referred to leaders in the context of politics (heads of state), they are applicable to other forms of leadership, too. Kautilya took a holistic view of leadership which can now be equated with stewardship theory. The lack of the stewardship concept is a weakness in mainstream leadership approaches, but it is now being incorporated in the management theory of stewardship. The concept of transcendence in leadership theory is new. Transcendence is the understanding that we are part of a larger universe, have extended responsibility, and must obey the laws of nature.