De Graaff T. and van Leuvensteijn M. A European cross-country comparison of the impact of homeownership and transaction costs on job tenure, Regional Studies. This paper looks at the impacts across European countries of homeownership and transaction costs on job tenure. The analysis is based on a representative household sample of fourteen European countries covering the period 1994-2001. These data are merged with country-specific transaction tax data and aggregate homeownership rates. Similar to previous microeconomic studies, the results indicate that homeownership reduces job mobility as well as the probability of becoming unemployed or economically inactive. It is found, however, that this effect is severely mitigated by two factors. First, it decreases when aggregate homeownership rates are higher. Thus, homeowners have larger job tenures, but more so in countries with low homeownership rates. Second, transaction costs on the housing market are positively associated with the probability of becoming unemployed. © 2013 © 2013 Regional Studies Association.
de Graaff, T., & van Leuvensteijn, M. (2013). An European cross-country comparison of the impact of housing market institutions on labour mobility. Regional Studies, 47(9), 1443-1461. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2011.626761