Analysis of the residual monomer content in milled and 3D-printed removable CAD-CAM complete dentures: an in vitro study

Murali Srinivasan*, Edward Chaoho Chien, Nicole Kalberer, Adrian Miguel Alambiaga Caravaca, Alicia López Castelleno, Porawit Kamnoedboon, Salvatore Sauro, Mutlu Özcan, Frauke Müller, Daniel Wismeijer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: The study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the elution of methylmethacrylate from CAD-CAM manufactured removable complete dentures (RCDs) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Thirty-two RCDs were manufactured following either the CNC-milling (Milled: n=8) or the 3D-printing (n=24) protocols. The 3D-printed dentures were further categorized into three groups based on their post-production rinsing cycles [Extended wash cycle (EWC), Standard wash cycle (SWC), and SWC with an additional Durécon coating (SWC2)]. HPLC was used to evaluate the methylmethacrylate concentrations (MMCs) eluted from the dentures in each group for different time periods (1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for the MMCs; data was verified for normal distribution, ANOVA and post hoc tests were applied for statistical analyses (⍺=0.05). Results: The HPLC revealed that all the denture groups recorded some amounts of MMCs, with significant differences [F (3, 31) = 23.646, p<0.0001]. The milled denture group had the highest MMCs at 24 hours when compared to the EWC (p<0.0001), SWC (p=0.001), and SWC2 (p<0.0001) denture groups. SWC had a higher MMC than EWC (p=0.032) and SWC2 (p=0.015). No differences were found in MMCs when comparing EWC and SWC2 (p=0.989). Conclusion: Methylmethacrylate concentrations were significantly lower in 3D-printed RCDs than in milled RCDs when using the resins employed in this study. Furthermore, the MMCs can be further decreased in 3D-printed RCDs when coated with an additional thin protective layer (Durécon) by following the manufacturer-recommended rinsing protocol or when an extended isopropanol wash cycle is adopted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104094
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Early online date15 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would also like to acknowledge and thank the following members from Global Dental Science Europe BV in The Netherlands, Mr. Sjon Grobbee, Mr. Matthjis Koning, and Mr. Marko Okkerse, for their kind help with the fabrication and prompt shipping of the milled CRDPs, for execution of this study. A special thanks is extended to Mr. Gideon Koens from Dental Printing Services B.V, The Netherlands, for the 3D-printed CRDPs. Also, Mr. Jaco de Ruiter from Dur?con Group for providing the coatings for the 3D-printed denture of SWC2 group. This study was in part supported by "Programa INDI Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera 2022" (PI: S.S.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)


  • 3D-printing
  • CAD-CAM milling
  • Geriatric dentistry
  • Removable complete dentures
  • Residual monomer content


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