© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common reason for empirical treatment with broadspectrum antibiotics worldwide. However, population-based antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prevalence data to inform empirical treatment choice are lacking in many regions, because of limited surveillance capacity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of AMR to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community- or healthcare-associated UTIs on two islands of Indonesia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional patient-based study in public and private hospitals and clinics between April 2014 and May 2015. We screened patients for symptoms of UTIs and through urine dipstick analysis. Urine culture and susceptibility testing were supported by telemicrobiology and interactive virtual laboratory rounds. Surveillance data were entered in forms on mobile phones. Results: Of 3424 eligible patients, 3380 (98.7%) were included in the final analysis, and yielded 840 positive cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility data for 657 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Fosfomycin was the single oral treatment option with resistance prevalence < 20% in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae in community settings. Tigecycline and fosfomycin were the only options for treatment of catheter-associated UTIs with resistance prevalence < 20%, whilst the prevalence of resistance to meropenem was 21.3% in K. pneumoniae. Conclusions: Patient-based surveillance of AMR in E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing UTIs indicates that resistance to the commonly available empirical treatment options is high in Indonesia. Smart AMR surveillance strategies are needed to inform policy makers and to guide interventions.