Application of CYP102A1M11H as a tool for the generation of protein adducts of reactive drug metabolites

J.S. Boerma, N.P.E. Vermeulen, J.N.M. Commandeur

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Covalent binding of reactive metabolites (RMs) to proteins is considered to be one of the important mechanisms by which drugs can cause tissue damage. To facilitate the study of drug-protein adducts, we developed a potentially generic method for producing high levels of covalently modified proteins. A highly active drug metabolizing P450 BM3 mutant (CYP102A1M11H) is used for drug bioactivation. Because of its His-tag, CYP102A1M11H is easily removed by nickel affinity chromatography, facilitating subsequent characterization of the modified target protein. The applicability of our procedure is demonstrated by the trapping of RMs of acetaminophen (APAP), clozapine (CLOZ), and troglitazone (TGZ) with human glutathione-S-transferase P1-1 (hGST P1-1) as the model target protein. Tryptic digests of hGST P1-1 were subjected to analysis by LC-MS/MS and modified peptides identified by the comparative analysis of tryptic peptides of adducted and nonadducted hGST P1-1. Characteristic MS/MS ions of drug-modified peptides were identified by first searching for expected adduct-masses. Unanticipated drug-peptide adducts were subsequently identified in an unbiased manner by screening for diagnostic MS/MS ions of modified peptides. Reactive intermediates of APAP and CLOZ adducted to cysteine-47 and mass shifts corresponded to the alkylation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) and the CLOZ nitrenium ion, respectively. Adduction of TGZ appeared more complex, yielding three different types of adducts to cysteine-47, two adducts to cysteine-14, and a single adduct to cysteine-101. Together, these findings show that P450 BM3 mutants with high capacity to activate drugs into relevant RMs can be employed to produce protein adducts to study the nucleophilic selectivity of highly reactive electrophiles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1274
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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