Applying rule-base anomalies to KADS inference structures

Frank Van Harmelen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The literature on validation and verification of knowledge-based systems contains a catalogue of anomalies for knowledge-based systems, such as redundant, contradictory or deficient knowledge. Detecting such anomalies is a method for verifying knowledge-based systems. Unfortunately, the traditional formulation of the anomalies in the literature is very specific to a rule-based knowledge representation, which greatly restricts their applicability. In this paper, we show how the traditional anomalies can be reinterpreted in terms of conceptual models (in particular KADS inference structures). For this purpose, we present a formalisation of KADS inference structures which enables us to apply the traditional rule-base anomalies to these inference structures. This greatly improves the usefulness of the anomalies, since they can now be applied to a much wider class of knowledge-based systems. Besides this reformulation and wider applicability of the traditional anomalies, further contributions of this paper are a novel formalisation of KADS inference structures and a number of improvements to the existing formalisation of the traditional anomalies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-280
Number of pages10
JournalDecision Support Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1997


  • Anomalies
  • Inference structures
  • Knowledge-based systems
  • Validation
  • Verification


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