Arctic carbon cycling

Torben R Christensen, SØREN Rysgaard, JØRGEN Bendtsen, Brent Else, Ronnie N Glud, J. van Huissteden, F.J.W. Parmentier, Torsten Sachs, J.E. Vonk

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, with
large regional differences in uptake rates. More regional
modelling and observational studies are required to
reduce the uncertainty among current estimates.
Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbon
sink may evolve in the future are currently lacking.
Direct connections have been documented between
sea-ice dynamics and carbon cycling in marine
ecosystems and on land. Projections suggest further
sea-ice decline may accelerate changes in carbon
cycling dynamics at sea and on land. Although rivertransported
organic and inorganic carbon plays a major
role in the marine Arctic carbon cycle this is not well
studied. Changes in terrestrial ecosystems may also
affect sea-ice decline – at least in the long term.
Permafrost underlies ~75% of the area draining into the
Arctic Ocean but its hydrology is poorly understood,
especially under global warming. Arctic tundra is a
net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the
growing season and the sink strength has more than
doubled since 2000 in Eurasia. In contrast, the few
winter data available show tundra ecosystems are a
net source of atmospheric CO2 in winter. Small features
below the resolution of current lake and wetland
databases may be important controls on carbon
transfer from permafrost soils to the atmosphere.
Earth System Models (ESMs) are not yet able to reliably
simulate the full dynamics of the Arctic carbon cycle.
This is mainly because such models still address
terrestrial and marine systems separately and because
they vary widely in their representation of permafrost.
Further development of ESMs should include a focus
on improving the connections between ocean and land,
especially in the representation of lateral fluxes.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationSnow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017
EditorsAMAP
Place of PublicationOslo
PublisherAMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme)
Pages203-218
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)ISBN 978-82-7971-101-8
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

permafrost
tundra
carbon cycle
carbon
ice
carbon sink
inorganic carbon
ocean
terrestrial ecosystem
sea ice
global warming
hydrology
carbon dioxide
atmosphere
ecosystem
winter
lake
land
soil
Arctic Ocean

Keywords

  • Permafrost
  • Arctic
  • Carbon cycle
  • marine carbon cycle
  • terrestrial carbon cycle

VU Research Profile

  • Science for Sustainability

Cite this

Christensen, T. R., Rysgaard, SØREN., Bendtsen, JØRGEN., Else, B., Glud, R. N., van Huissteden, J., ... Vonk, J. E. (2017). Arctic carbon cycling. In AMAP. (Ed.), Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017 (pp. 203-218). [8] Oslo: AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme).
Christensen, Torben R ; Rysgaard, SØREN ; Bendtsen, JØRGEN ; Else, Brent ; Glud, Ronnie N ; van Huissteden, J. ; Parmentier, F.J.W. ; Sachs, Torsten ; Vonk, J.E. / Arctic carbon cycling. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017. editor / AMAP. Oslo : AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme), 2017. pp. 203-218
@inbook{89e37483d2e64757ac36d091058ff7d1,
title = "Arctic carbon cycling",
abstract = "The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, withlarge regional differences in uptake rates. More regionalmodelling and observational studies are required toreduce the uncertainty among current estimates.Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbonsink may evolve in the future are currently lacking.Direct connections have been documented betweensea-ice dynamics and carbon cycling in marineecosystems and on land. Projections suggest furthersea-ice decline may accelerate changes in carboncycling dynamics at sea and on land. Although rivertransportedorganic and inorganic carbon plays a majorrole in the marine Arctic carbon cycle this is not wellstudied. Changes in terrestrial ecosystems may alsoaffect sea-ice decline – at least in the long term.Permafrost underlies ~75{\%} of the area draining into theArctic Ocean but its hydrology is poorly understood,especially under global warming. Arctic tundra is anet sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in thegrowing season and the sink strength has more thandoubled since 2000 in Eurasia. In contrast, the fewwinter data available show tundra ecosystems are anet source of atmospheric CO2 in winter. Small featuresbelow the resolution of current lake and wetlanddatabases may be important controls on carbontransfer from permafrost soils to the atmosphere.Earth System Models (ESMs) are not yet able to reliablysimulate the full dynamics of the Arctic carbon cycle.This is mainly because such models still addressterrestrial and marine systems separately and becausethey vary widely in their representation of permafrost.Further development of ESMs should include a focuson improving the connections between ocean and land,especially in the representation of lateral fluxes.",
keywords = "Permafrost, Arctic, Carbon cycle, marine carbon cycle, terrestrial carbon cycle",
author = "Christensen, {Torben R} and S{\O}REN Rysgaard and J{\O}RGEN Bendtsen and Brent Else and Glud, {Ronnie N} and {van Huissteden}, J. and F.J.W. Parmentier and Torsten Sachs and J.E. Vonk",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
isbn = "ISBN 978-82-7971-101-8",
pages = "203--218",
editor = "AMAP",
booktitle = "Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017",
publisher = "AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme)",

}

Christensen, TR, Rysgaard, SØREN, Bendtsen, JØRGEN, Else, B, Glud, RN, van Huissteden, J, Parmentier, FJW, Sachs, T & Vonk, JE 2017, Arctic carbon cycling. in AMAP (ed.), Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017., 8, AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme), Oslo, pp. 203-218.

Arctic carbon cycling. / Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, SØREN; Bendtsen, JØRGEN; Else, Brent; Glud, Ronnie N; van Huissteden, J.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Sachs, Torsten; Vonk, J.E.

Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017. ed. / AMAP. Oslo : AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme), 2017. p. 203-218 8.

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

TY - CHAP

T1 - Arctic carbon cycling

AU - Christensen, Torben R

AU - Rysgaard, SØREN

AU - Bendtsen, JØRGEN

AU - Else, Brent

AU - Glud, Ronnie N

AU - van Huissteden, J.

AU - Parmentier, F.J.W.

AU - Sachs, Torsten

AU - Vonk, J.E.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, withlarge regional differences in uptake rates. More regionalmodelling and observational studies are required toreduce the uncertainty among current estimates.Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbonsink may evolve in the future are currently lacking.Direct connections have been documented betweensea-ice dynamics and carbon cycling in marineecosystems and on land. Projections suggest furthersea-ice decline may accelerate changes in carboncycling dynamics at sea and on land. Although rivertransportedorganic and inorganic carbon plays a majorrole in the marine Arctic carbon cycle this is not wellstudied. Changes in terrestrial ecosystems may alsoaffect sea-ice decline – at least in the long term.Permafrost underlies ~75% of the area draining into theArctic Ocean but its hydrology is poorly understood,especially under global warming. Arctic tundra is anet sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in thegrowing season and the sink strength has more thandoubled since 2000 in Eurasia. In contrast, the fewwinter data available show tundra ecosystems are anet source of atmospheric CO2 in winter. Small featuresbelow the resolution of current lake and wetlanddatabases may be important controls on carbontransfer from permafrost soils to the atmosphere.Earth System Models (ESMs) are not yet able to reliablysimulate the full dynamics of the Arctic carbon cycle.This is mainly because such models still addressterrestrial and marine systems separately and becausethey vary widely in their representation of permafrost.Further development of ESMs should include a focuson improving the connections between ocean and land,especially in the representation of lateral fluxes.

AB - The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, withlarge regional differences in uptake rates. More regionalmodelling and observational studies are required toreduce the uncertainty among current estimates.Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbonsink may evolve in the future are currently lacking.Direct connections have been documented betweensea-ice dynamics and carbon cycling in marineecosystems and on land. Projections suggest furthersea-ice decline may accelerate changes in carboncycling dynamics at sea and on land. Although rivertransportedorganic and inorganic carbon plays a majorrole in the marine Arctic carbon cycle this is not wellstudied. Changes in terrestrial ecosystems may alsoaffect sea-ice decline – at least in the long term.Permafrost underlies ~75% of the area draining into theArctic Ocean but its hydrology is poorly understood,especially under global warming. Arctic tundra is anet sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in thegrowing season and the sink strength has more thandoubled since 2000 in Eurasia. In contrast, the fewwinter data available show tundra ecosystems are anet source of atmospheric CO2 in winter. Small featuresbelow the resolution of current lake and wetlanddatabases may be important controls on carbontransfer from permafrost soils to the atmosphere.Earth System Models (ESMs) are not yet able to reliablysimulate the full dynamics of the Arctic carbon cycle.This is mainly because such models still addressterrestrial and marine systems separately and becausethey vary widely in their representation of permafrost.Further development of ESMs should include a focuson improving the connections between ocean and land,especially in the representation of lateral fluxes.

KW - Permafrost

KW - Arctic

KW - Carbon cycle

KW - marine carbon cycle

KW - terrestrial carbon cycle

M3 - Chapter

SN - ISBN 978-82-7971-101-8

SP - 203

EP - 218

BT - Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017

A2 - , AMAP

PB - AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme)

CY - Oslo

ER -

Christensen TR, Rysgaard SØREN, Bendtsen JØRGEN, Else B, Glud RN, van Huissteden J et al. Arctic carbon cycling. In AMAP, editor, Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017. Oslo: AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme). 2017. p. 203-218. 8