Artificial Intelligence for Future Lunar Societies: A Critical Analysis of the Liability Problem

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming the space industry by offering unprecedented possibilities for space related activities. AI applications in space include from analyzing large amounts of space data, enabling deep-space missions, mitigating the effects of climate change, combating space pollution, to
assisting astronaut crews during their daily operations. In the context of building future human societies on the Moon, AI systems will play a double role: an ex-ante preparation role and a societal consolidative role. AI systems used in the ex-ante preparation phase include various applications used for exploration
investigations and they will be decisive for the scientifical understanding of the future Lunar habitat. Once the habitats will be settled, AI systems will contribute for consolidation, playing an assistive role, among others. AI systems will be able to offer support in daily activities, including offering mental health assistance. Similar systems have already been successfully deployed on the International Space Station, for crew assistance.
The introduction of AI systems as part of future Lunar habitats does not come without corresponding risks, especially from a legal perspective. Several legal challenges may appear in the context of a high reliance on these systems, such as: who will be liable in case an AI system will be involved in accidents causing economic losses or loss of human lives? What type of legal framework will be required to mitigate such risks? Will the existing body of laws representing international space law remain sufficient for addressing these challenges?
In such context, the purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the above-mentioned legal risks and to propose corresponding mitigating actions for ensuring long-standing future Lunar societies.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication5th Global Moon Village Workshop & Symposium December 6-8 2021, Nicosia, Cyprus
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • liability, artificial intelligence, Moon Agreement, Liability Convention


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