Assessing the toxicity of thiamethoxam, in natural LUFA 2.2 soil, through three generations of Folsomia candida

Cláudia de Lima E Silva, Justine Mariette, Rudo A. Verweij, Cornelis A.M. van Gestel*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    In the field, long-term exposure is a rule rather than an exception. As a consequence, the relatively short-term standard toxicity tests may not be adequate for assessing long-term effects of pesticide exposure. This study determined the toxicity of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, both pure and in the formulation Actara® (25% active substance), to the springtail Folsomia candida, over three generations (P, F1 and F2). For the parental generation (P), the toxicity of pure thiamethoxam and Actara® did not differ significantly, with LC50s and EC50s of 0.32–0.35 and 0.23–0.25 mg a.s./kg dry soil, respectively. For the F1 and F2 generations, LC50s were >0.37 mg a.s./kg dry soil for both compounds. Actara was more toxic towards reproduction in the F1 generation (EC50 0.16 mg a.s./kg dry soil) than pure thiamethoxam (EC50 0.23 mg a.s./kg dry soil). For generation F2, there was no significant difference in the toxicity of the compounds towards reproduction, with EC50s of >0.37 and 0.30 mg a.s./kg dry soil for Actara® and pure thiamethoxam respectively. These results suggest a slight decrease in the toxicity of the compounds throughout the generations tested. The similarity in the toxicity of pure and formulated thiamethoxam indicates that the ingredients in the formulation Actara® do not enhance toxicity.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)764-771
    Number of pages8
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018


    • Actara®
    • Multigeneration
    • Natural soil
    • Neonicotinoid
    • Springtail
    • Thiamethoxam


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