Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on variation in these behaviors. Teachers completed the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised:Short version (CTRS-R:S) in a sample of 800 male and 851 female 7-year-old Dutch twins. No sex differences in the factor structure of the CTRS-R:S were found, implying the absence of measurement bias. The heritabilities for both ADHD and ODD were high and were the same in boys and girls. However, partly different genes are expressed in boys and girls. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
- Netherlands Twin Register (NTR)