Association of dietary intake and dietary habits with risk of cardiovascular disease among immigrant Pakistanis living in the Netherlands

Qaisar Raza*, Mary Nicolaou, Funda Cay, Jaap Seidell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: To explore the current intake/changed dietary habits being associated with risk of cardiovascular disease after migration from Pakistan to the Netherlands. Methods: Data collection started in March 2012 and ended in July 2013. Self-administered survey with respect to cardiovascular disease and dietary intake was filled by 154 adult Pakistanis. Participants were approached through festivals and community centres. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. Results: There were 41 (61%) participants who reported drinking fruit juice every day, while 13 (18.6%) participants reported drinking soft drinks 5-7 days a week. In addition, 20 (30%) participants reported decreased intake of high fat/fried foods, deserts/candy/sweets and red meat, while 23 (35%) reported an increased intake of soft drinks and convenience foods, as far as high calorie and refined food items were considered, after migration. Conclusion The study showed significant changes in dietary habits, both favourable and unfavourable, being associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases among immigrant Pakistanis living in The Netherlands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-227
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number1-B
Early online date26 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding Sources: The authors acknowledge help for funding from Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and the Free University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The funding sources had no involvement in the study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation of data. They also had no involvement, whatsoever, in writing of the article and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • CVD
  • Diet
  • Dietary acculturation
  • Migration
  • Pakistani


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