Objective: Systematic reviews on sleep bruxism (SB) as a comorbid condition of other sleep-related disorders are lacking. Such reviews would contribute to the insight of sleep clinicians into the occurrence of SB in patients with other sleep-related disorders, and into the underlying mechanisms of such comorbid associations. This systematic review aimed: 1. to determine the prevalence of SB in adults with other sleep-related disorders; and 2. to determine the associations between SB and other sleep-related disorders, and to explain the underlying mechanisms of these associations. Methods: A systematic search on SB and sleep-related disorders was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to identify eligible studies published until May 15, 2020. Quality assessment was performed using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies. Results: Of the 1539 unique retrieved studies, 37 articles were included in this systematic review. The prevalence of SB in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement during sleep, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux disease, REM behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related epilepsy was higher than that in the general population. The specific mechanisms behind these positive associations could not be identified. Conclusions: SB is more prevalent in patients with the previously mentioned disorders than in the general population. Sleep arousal may be a common factor with which all the identified disorders are associated, except RBD and Parkinson's disease. The associations between SB and these identified sleep-related disorders call for more SB screening in patients with the abovementioned sleep-related disorders.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Kuang and Dr. Li are sponsored by the China scholarship council (CSC). Dr. Lobbezoo is a member of Academic Advisory Boards for GrindCare and for Oral Function, and reports grants from Sunstar Suisse SA, Airway Management, Somnomed-Goedegebuure, Vivisol BV, and Health Holland. Dr. de Vries is a researcher for Inspire, Nyxoah, and Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and a consultant for Philips. Dr. Aarab reports grants from SomnoMed-Goedegebuure, Sunstar Suisse, Vivisol BV, and TKI Health Holland. The other authors have no financial disclosures or conflicts of interest.
Boyuan Kuang and Deshui Li are sponsored by the China Scholarship Council, China. . The grants have no role in the conception, design, and execution of this study.
© 2021 The Author(s)
- Sleep arousal
- Sleep bruxism
- Sleep disorders
- Systematic review