Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

L.H.H. Winkens*, T. van Strien, I.A. Brouwer, Brenda Penninx, Marjolein Visser, Liisa Lähteenmäki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested.

METHODS:
Data were collected in Denmark (n = 1522), Spain (n = 1512) and the Netherlands (n = 1439). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses segregated by country were used to test associations of four mindful eating domains (Mindful Eating Behaviour Scale; MEBS) with depressive symptoms (continuous score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D) and depression (score above the CES-D cut-off value, and/or use of antidepressants, and/or psychological treatment). Moderation by change in appetite was tested with bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals.

RESULTS:
The domains Focused Eating, Eating with Awareness and Eating without Distraction were significantly negatively associated with depressive symptoms and depression in all three countries (e.g. Focused Eating Denmark: B = - 0.71, 95% CI: - 0.87, - 0.54; OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.93). The domain Hunger and Satiety Cues (only measured in the Netherlands) was significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms in the adjusted models (B = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.16), but not with depression (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.05). These associations were found for both people with and without increased appetite.

LIMITATIONS:
The cross-sectional design, which makes it impossible to draw causal conclusions.

CONCLUSIONS:
The present study indicates that higher scores on three mindful eating domains are consistently associated with a lower level of depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of having depression in three European countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume228
Early online date14 Nov 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

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