Automated at-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatographic analysis of micropollutants in water.

T. Hankemeier, P.C. Steketee, J.J. Vreuls, U.A.T. Brinkman

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A fully automated at-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography procedure has been developed for the analysis of aqueous samples using the PrepStation. The sample extract is transferred from the sample preparation module to the gas chromatograph via an autosampler vial. With flame-ionization detection, limits of determination (S/N = 10) of 0.05-0.13 μg/l were obtained for the analysis of HPLC-grade water when modifying the PrepStation by: (i) increasing the sample volume to 50 ml, (ii) increasing the injection volume up to 50 μl, and (iii) decreasing the desorption volume to 300 μl. The HP autosampler had to be modified to enable the automated 'at-once' on-column injection of up to 50 μl of sample extract. The amount of packing material in the original cartridge had to be reduced to effect the decrease of the desorption volume. The total set-up did not require any further optimization after having set up the method once. The analytical characteristics of the organonitrogen and organophosphorus test analytes, i.e. recoveries (typically 75-105%), repeatability (2-8%) and linearity (0.09-3.0 μg/l) were satisfactory. The potential of the system was demonstrated by determining triazines and organophosphorus pesticides in river Rhine water at the 0.6 μg/l level using flame-ionization and mass-selective detection. No practical problems were observed during the analysis of more than 100 river water samples.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-174
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Publication statusPublished - 1996


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