Toxin-antitoxin modules are necessary for the mode of action of several antibiotics. One of the most studied toxin-antitoxin modules is the quorum sensing—dependent MazEF system in Escherichia coli. The quorum sensing factor in this system is called the extracellular death factor (EDF), a linear pentapeptide with the sequence NNWNN. In spite of the extensive research on the mazEF system and the involvement of the quorum sensing factor EDF, the effect of EDF itself on bacteria has not yet been studied. In this research, we determined the effect of EDF and variants on cell growth in the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli and the Gram-positive Bacillus globigii. By aligning the zwf gene (from where EDF originates) of different bacterial species, we found 27 new theoretical variants of the peptide. By evaluating growth curves and light microscopy we found that three EDF variants reduced bacterial cell size in B. globigii, but not in E. coli. The D-peptides did not affect cell size, indicating that the effect is stereospecific. Peptides wherein tryptophan was substituted by alanine also did not affect cell size, which indicates that the effect seen is mediated by an intracellular target.