The evolution of cytoskeletal filaments (actin- and intermediate-filaments, and the microtubules) and their associated motor- and non-motor-proteins has enabled the eukaryotic cell to achieve complex organizational and structural tasks. This ability to control cellular transport processes and structures allowed for the development of such complex cellular organelles like cilia or flagella in single-cell organisms and made possible the development and differentiation of multi-cellular organisms with highly specialized, polarized cells. Also, the faithful segregation of large amounts of genetic information during cell division relies crucially on the reorganization and control of the cytoskeleton, making the cytoskeleton a key prerequisite for the development of highly complex genomes. Therefore, it is not surprising that the eukaryotic cell continuously invests considerable resources in the establishment, maintenance, modification and rearrangement of the cytoskeletal filaments and the regulation of its interaction with accessory proteins. Here we review the literature on the interaction between microtubules and motor-proteins of the kinesin-family. Our particular interest is the role of the microtubule in the regulation of kinesin motility and cellular function. After an introduction of the kinesin-microtubule interaction we focus on two interrelated aspects: (1) the active allosteric participation of the microtubule during the interaction with kinesins in general and (2) the possible regulatory role of post-translational modifications of the microtubule in the kinesin-microtubule interaction. © Springer 2006.