Bi-phasic hitting with constraints on impact velocity and temporal precision

S.R. Caljouw, J. van der Kamp, G.J.P. Savelsbergh

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    The aim of the experiment was to investigate how bi-phasic hitting movements are organized to comply with both impact and temporal precision constraints. 'Bi-phasic' refers to a sequential movement with a preparatory movement away from the interception location followed by a strike phase. The interception location was fixed, as the motion of the hitting device was constrained to follow a straight path orthogonal to that of the approaching balls. We manipulated the required temporal precision by projecting balls with different constant approach speeds (1, 1.5, and 2 m/s). Different impact constraints were imposed by instructing participants first to simply hit the ball and subsequently to hit the ball to a designated target area located either 55 or 105 cm away from the interception location. We determined several kinematic variables and used Principal Component Factor Analysis to classify these variables. The analysis revealed two independent factors: A 'velocity' factor (formed by impact velocity, peak velocity of the preparatory phase, peak velocity of the strike phase, and amplitude of the strike) and a 'timing' factor (formed by onset of the preparatory phase, moment of peak velocity of the preparatory phase, and onset of the strike phase). The 'velocity' factor scaled significantly with the required impact constraint and the 'timing' factor scaled significantly with ball speed. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)206-17
    JournalHuman Movement Science
    Publication statusPublished - 2005


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